Gender differences in pain and its relief.

  title={Gender differences in pain and its relief.},
  author={Stefano Pieretti and Amalia Di Giannuario and Rita di Giovannandrea and F. Marzoli and Giovanni Piccaro and Paola Minosi and Anna Maria Aloisi},
  journal={Annali dell'Istituto superiore di sanita},
  volume={52 2},
There is much evidence to suggest that gender is an important factor in the modulation of pain. Literature data strongly suggest that men and women differ in their responses to pain: they are more variable in women than men, with increased pain sensitivity and many more painful diseases commonly reported among women. Gender differences in pharmacological therapy and non-pharmacological pain interventions have also been reported, but these effects appear to depend on the treatment type and… 

Why We Still Need To Speak About Sex Differences and Sex Hormones in Pain

  • A. Aloisi
  • Biology, Psychology
    Pain and Therapy
  • 2017
All the data confirm the urgent need to include sex differences and sex hormones among the key factors that play an important role in pain and pain treatment.

Demographic Predictors of Pain Sensitivity: Results From the OPPERA Study.

Effects of sex on placebo effects in chronic pain participants: a cross-sectional study.

It is suggested that women experience larger conditioning effects, expectations and placebo response emphasizing the need to consider sex as a biological variable when placebo outcomes are parts of drug development trials and in pain management.

No Gender Differences in Pain Perception and Medication after Lumbar Spine Sequestrectomy—A Reanalysis of a Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

This reanalysis of an RCT with respect to gender differences is to the authors' knowledge the first attempt to investigate the role of gender in pain perception and medication after lumbar spine sequestrectomy.

Gender Differences in Medication Adverse Effects Experienced by People Living With Chronic Pain

Although it is unable to confirm whether the associations can be explained by differences in the experience or in the reporting of effects, gender identity and gender roles should both be explored when studying pain medication adverse effects.

Clinical and Research Tools for Pain Assessment

Self-report measures follow a multidimensional approach aimed at characterizing multiple aspects of the pain experience such as chronicity, severity, quality, locations, affective impact, and associated factors.

Does Gender Moderate the Relationship Between Chronic Pain and Substance Use Disorder? Insights From a National Canadian Population Survey

The results suggest that gender moderated the relations between arthritis as well as migraine, and substance use disorder, respectively, and treatment programs for pain and substance misuse might benefit from an approach tailored to gender differences.



Sex differences in pain.

  • K. Berkley
  • Psychology, Biology
    The Behavioral and brain sciences
  • 1997
While inductive analysis of existing data demonstrate more similarities than differences in pain experience between females and males, deductive analysis suggests important operational sex differences in its production.

Sex differences in pain and analgesia: the role of gonadal hormones

Sex differences in pain and pain inhibition: multiple explanations of a controversial phenomenon

  • J. Mogil
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Nature Reviews Neuroscience
  • 2012
A survey of the currently available epidemiological and laboratory data indicates that the evidence for clinical and experimental sex differences in pain is overwhelming.

Modulation of pain by estrogens

Defining Gender Disparities in Pain Management

  • L. Leresche
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Clinical orthopaedics and related research
  • 2011
This review finds that gender disparities in the amount of healthcare use for pain may be partially explained by the experience of higher-intensity pain in women, and further research is needed to address all three major purposes.

Opioid-induced hypogonadism: why and how to treat it.

It is highlighted to pain physicians that the endocrine changes occurring during chronic pain therapy can participate in the body dysfunctions often present in chronic pain patients and that there are possible hormone replacement methods that can be carried out in men and women to improve their quality of life.

Morphine responses and experimental pain: sex differences in side effects and cardiovascular responses but not analgesia.