While it has been established that the weight of the female rhesus monkey brain is less than that of the male, the sexual dimorphism of specific brain structures has not been well-documented. To further understand potential sex differences, we measured the whole brain volume and the size of the corpus callosum (mid-sagittal) and amygdala (largest coronal section) in MRI images from juvenile to adult male and female rhesus monkeys between 8 months and 7.2 years of age. The mean volume of the male brain was 89.2 +/- 1.9 (S.E.M.) compared to the female brain volume of 70.8 +/- 0.72 cm3. The average area of the corpus callosum increased from 8 months to 4.5 years; 0.56 to 0.93 cm2 in males and 0.45 to 0.66 cm2 in females. However, the average area of splenium is significantly greater in females (0.280 cm2), than males (0.184 cm2). The average area of the amygdala did not change with age; it was 1.07 +/- 0.037 (S.E.M.) in males and 1.08 +/- 0.022 cm2 in females. This data suggests that the whole brain volume and the size of the entire corpus callosum of young adult female rhesus monkeys are approximately 20% smaller than those of young adult males. Interestingly, the area of the splenial portion of the corpus callosum is larger in female monkeys. The size of the amygdala showed no sex difference.