Macro- and micronutrients in African-Americans with heart failure
To identify the clinical correlates of recurrent heart failure hospitalization in a large urban hospital serving predominately African-American patients, and to provide further insight into modifiable risks for heart failure readmissions, a retrospective period prevalence review of the records of all adult patients admitted with a primary diagnosis of heart failure (International Classification of Diseases-9 code 428.0) between January and December 1995 was performed. The main outcome was the number of heart failure hospitalizations over 12 months. Twelve hundred patients were identified. Mean age was 64 +/- 16 years, 94% were black, 57% were women, and 40% were > or = 65 years old. Ninety-eight percent had a history of systemic hypertension and 55% had uncontrolled hypertension. Other comorbidities were left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy (64%), coronary artery disease (52%), and tobacco abuse (28%). Sixty-five percent of patients were on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, 51% on calcium antagonists, and 8% on beta blockers. Most patients had suboptimal dosing of ACE inhibitors and there was inappropriate use of calcium antagonists in 56% of patients with moderate or severe systolic dysfunction. Diabetes mellitus and echocardiographic wall motion abnormality were independently associated with frequent admissions for women but not for men. Medication-related increase in heart failure hospitalization was seen for calcium antagonists in patients with severe LV dysfunction (odds ratio 2.24, 95% confidence intervals 1.0 to 5.03; p <0.03). Uncontrolled hypertension, underdosing of ACE inhibitors, and overuse of calcium antagonists in patients with significant LV dysfunction are potential targets for intervention.