Gender and self-esteem.

@article{Josephs1992GenderAS,
  title={Gender and self-esteem.},
  author={Robert A. Josephs and Hazel Rose Markus and Romin W. Tafarodi},
  journal={Journal of personality and social psychology},
  year={1992},
  volume={63 3},
  pages={391-402}
}
Where does self-esteem (SE) come from? Three experiments explored the idea that men's and women's SE arise, in part, from different sources. It was hypothesized that SE is related to successfully measuring up to culturally mandated, gender-appropriate norms--separation and independence for men and connection and interdependence for women. Results from Study 1 suggested that men's SE can be linked to a individuation process in which one's personal distinguishing achievements are emphasized… CONTINUE READING