Gender and Preferences at a Young Age: Evidence from Armenia

  title={Gender and Preferences at a Young Age: Evidence from Armenia},
  author={Karen Khachatryan and Anna Dreber and Emma von Essen and Eva Ranehill},
  journal={Microeconomics: Decision-Making under Risk \& Uncertainty eJournal},
We look at gender differences in competitiveness, risk preferences and altruism in a large sample of children and adolescents aged 7–16 in Armenia. Post-Soviet Armenia has few formal barriers to gender equality but is also characterized by a patrilineal kinship system and traditional gender roles. In contrast to research conducted in Western countries, we find that girls increase their performance more than boys in response to competition in a running task. We find no gender differences in the… 
Sex Differences in Competitiveness: Hunter-Gatherer Women and Girls Compete Less in Gender-Neutral and Male-Centric Tasks
Despite numerous attempts to increase workplace equality, the near universal gender wage gap and underrepresentation of women in high status jobs persists in societies around the world. This
Gender Differences in Competitiveness and Risk-Taking Among Children, Teenagers, and College Students: Evidence from Jeopardy!
Studying competitiveness and risk-taking among Jeopardy! contestants in the US, this paper analyzes whether and how gender differences emerge with age and by gender of opponent. Our samples contain
Emirati women do not shy away from competition: evidence from a patriarchal society in transition
We explore gender attitudes towards competition in the United Arab Emirates—a traditionally patriarchal society which in recent times has adopted numerous policies to empower women and promote their
Willingness to Compete: Family Matters
It is shown that family background is fundamental in two important ways, children from families where parents have low income and education are less willing to compete, even when controlling for confidence, performance, riskand time preferences, social preferences, and psychological traits.
Culture and Gender Differences in Willingness to Compete*
We test whether culture affects willingness to compete by combining the epidemiological approach with a pre-registered online experiment. In a sample of 1,943 Norwegians with parents born in 59
Gender and economic preferences in a large random sample
We explore gender differences in preferences related to altruism, fairness, cooperation, trust, coordination, risk and competitiveness in an experiment with a large random sample of the Swedish
Risk Preferences of Children and Adolescents in Relation to Gender, Cognitive Skills, Soft Skills, and Executive Functions
We conduct experiments eliciting risk preferences with over 1,400 children and adolescents aged 3-15 years old. We complement our data with an assessment of cognitive and executive function skills.
Does selection bias cause us to overestimate gender differences in competitiveness?
Experimental evidence suggests there is a substantial difference in the willingness of men and women to compete that could help explain the gender gap in labor market outcomes. The use of volunteer
Understanding Gender Differences in Leadership
Using data from a large-scale field experiment, we show that while there is no gender difference in the willingness to make risky decisions on behalf of a group in a sample of children, a large gap


Gender Differences in Competitiveness and Risk Taking: Comparing Children in Colombia and Sweden
We explore gender differences in preferences for competition and risk among children aged 9-12 in Colombia and Sweden, two countries differing in gender equality according to macro indices. We
Outrunning the gender gap—boys and girls compete equally
Recent studies find that women are less competitive than men. This gender difference in competitiveness has been suggested as one possible explanation for why men occupy the majority of top positions
Gender and competition at a young age
Gender gaps may be observed in a variety of economic and social environments. One of the possible determining factors is that men are more competitive than women and so, when the competitiveness of
Gender, Competitiveness, and Socialization at a Young Age: Evidence From a Matrilineal and a Patriarchal Society
Abstract Recent literature presents evidence that men are more competitively inclined than women. Since top-level careers usually require competitiveness, competitiveness differences provide an
Gender Differences in the Willingness to Compete Emerge Early in Life and Persist
It is found that boys are more likely to compete than girls as early as kindergarten and that this gap prevails throughout adolescence, and these gender differences also largely persist over a longer time period and can thus be considered stable.
Gender Differences in Risk Behaviour: Does Nurture Matter?
Women and men may differ in their propensity to choose a risky outcome because of innate preferences or because pressure to conform to gender-stereotypes encourages girls and boys to modify their
Explaining Gender Differences in Competitiveness: Gender-Task Stereotypes
Gender-specific patterns of self-selection into competitive and cooperative environments may have multiple reasons. One of the most prominent explanations to this point is, that there are inherent
Gender, Competitiveness and Career Choices
Gender differences in competitiveness are often discussed as a potential explanation for gender differences in education and labor market outcomes. We correlate an incentivized measure of
Performance in Competitive Environments: Gender Differences
Even though the provision of equal opportunities for men and women has been a priority in many countries, large gender differences prevail in competitive high-ranking positions. Suggested