Gender and Leadership Style: A Meta-Analysis

  title={Gender and Leadership Style: A Meta-Analysis},
  author={Alice H. Eagly and Blair T. Johnson},
  journal={Psychological Bulletin},
Research comparing the leadership styles of women and men is reviewed, and evidence is found for both the presence and the absence of differences between the sexes. In contrast to the gender-stereotypic expectation that women lead in an interpersonaily oriented style and men in a task-oriented style, female and male leaders did not differ in these two styles in organizational studies. However, these aspects of leadership style were somewhat gender stereotypic in the two other classes of… 
Sex and Leadership Styles: A Meta-Analysis of Research Published in the 1990s
Analysis showed that evidence for sex differences in leadership behavior is mixed, demonstrating that women tend to use more democratic and transformational leadership styles than men do, whereas no sex differences are found on the other leadership styles.
Leadership styles : gender similarities, differences and perceptions
A comprehensive definition of leadership is that of a process in which an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal. Over recent years there has been major expansion of
Gender Differences in Leadership Styles as a Function of Leader and Subordinates' Sex and Type of Organization
The main purpose of this study is to investigate gender differences in leadership styles and in organizational outcome variables, together with the influence of organizational/contextual variables on
Gender and leadership styles : A review of the past decade
Research on sex differences in leadership styles over the past decade (1987-1999) is reviewed and compared with the results of a meta-analysis of studies of the previous period by Eagly and Johnson
The existing body of literature presents evidence that impact of gender differences on leadership styles is still inconclusive, yet it is clear that gender differences in leadership styles have not
Gender and personality in transformational leadership context : An examination of leader and subordinate perspectives
Purpose – There are many studies of personality and leadership and gender and leadership, but only few leadership studies have taken into account both personality and gender. That may partly be due
Gender and Leadership Style among School Principals: A Meta-Analysis
This article uses meta-analytic methods to review 50 studies that compared the leader-ship styles of principals of public schools and finds some evidence for differences between the sexes. In
Gender, women and leadership
abstract There is an ongoing debate which focuses on the question of whether women have different leadership styles from men. This article offers an overview of current perspectives on gender and
Purpose – Whether men and women behave differently in leadership roles is a much-debated issue. Although there is consensus that woman, face more barriers to becoming leaders than men specifically in
Untangling the relationship between gender and leadership
Purpose – The purpose of this study is to empirically explore the perceptions of leader effectiveness and preference on gender and leadership style. Design/methodology/approach


Gender differences in perceptions of leadership
A study was conducted to examine gender differences in perceptions of leadership. Subjects (N=320) were assigned to same-sex groups of four to six members. The groups participated in a leaderless
Male versus female leaders: A comparison of empirical studies
One of the popular reasons given for differential treatment of women in management stems from stereotyping females as ineffective leaders. Thirty-two female leadership studies were reviewed. Trait,
Another look at gender-related differences in leadership behavior
This investigation examined self-related behavioral differences in terms of broad leadership styles using a methodology that minimized biases inherent in research designs previously employed to
An exploration of women's expectations of effective male and female leadership
University women (N=188) of varying ages (19–53) and work experience described their behavioral expectations of an effective male and female leader for levels of Consideration, Initiating Structure,
Equity vs equality: Sex differences in leadership
The present study investigated differences between male and female leaders' responses to poorly performing subordinates. Ninety-four male and 94 female leaders were presented with a vignette
Styles of management and communication: A comparative study of men and women
While women increasingly are assuming positions of prominence in modern organizations, and while considerable research exists demonstrating that, in general, males and females in some respects differ
Altering Preferences for Leadership Style of Men and Women Undergraduate Residence Advisors through Leadership Training
12 men and 12 women Residence Advisors were administered the T-P Leadership Questionnaire on two separate occasions. Two groups were formed; one served as a control and the other received leadership
Sex Differences in Attitudes toward Leaders' Display of Authoritarian Behavior
Recent studies of differences in attitudes of men and women suggested that women might possess the “authoritarian” trait of ethnocentricism to a greater degree than men and might therefore exhibit
Some differences in certain communication behaviors of autocratic and democratic group leaders.
It was suggested that confirmation of the hypotheses underscores the potential utility of the paired comparison instrument developed to identify autocratic and democratic leaders.