Gender Verification in Competitive Sports

  title={Gender Verification in Competitive Sports},
  author={Joe Leigh Simpson and Arne Ljungqvist and Albert de la Chapelle and Malcolm Andrew Ferguson-Smith and Myron Genel and Alison Carlson and Anke Ehrhardt and Elizabeth A. Ferris},
  journal={Sports Medicine},
SummaryThe possibility that men might masquerade as women and be unfair competitors in women’s sports is accepted as outrageous by athletes and the public alike. Since the 1930s, media reports have fuelled claims that individuals who once competed as female athletes subsequently appeared to be men. In most of these cases there was probably ambiguity of the external genitalia, possibly as a result of male pseudohermaphroditism. Nonetheless, beginning at the Rome Olympic Games in 1960, the… 
Gender verification of female athletes
The history and rationales for fairness in female-only sports that have led to the rise and fall of on-site, chromosome-based gender verification at international sporting events are reviewed.
Gender verification in the Olympics.
The medical community should applaud the decision of the IOC to abolish onsite gender verification preceding athletic events, effective with the current Summer Olympics in Sydney, Australia.
The science of sex verification and athletic performance.
This review will provide the historical context of the debate, aim to discuss relevant physiological and performance aspects of the sex verification process, and provide sound scientific evidence to determine whether a performance advantage actually exists and how large it might be.
Policing the Boundaries of Sex: A Critical Examination of Gender Verification and the Caster Semenya Controversy
This article critically assesses the main concepts and claims that undergird international sport organizations' policies regarding “gender verification” or “sex testing,” and makes three recommendations that are consistent with the attainment of sex and gender justice in sport.
Gender Verification and Gender Policies in Elite Sport
Sex-segregated sports require governing bodies to clearly and accurately place athletes in two categories, one labeled “men” and the other labeled “women.” Sports governing bodies such as the
The science and management of sex verification in sport
The present review provides the historical context to the debate, identifying the origins of gender verification as a means to deter cheating and describing how various testing methods have been attempted, including physical examinations of genitalia, molecular techniques including genetic screening, and complex multidisciplinary approaches including endocrinological, genetic and gynaecological examination.
Constructing Gender Incommensurability in Competitive Sport: Sex/Gender Testing and the New Regulations on Female Hyperandrogenism
The segregation of the sexes in sport still seems to be regarded as a matter of course. In contrast to other performance classes, e.g., age and weight, which are constructed on the grounds of
An approach to the biological, historical and psychological repercussions of gender verification in top level competitions
Martinez-Patino MJ, Mateos-Padorno C, Martinez-Vidal A, Sanchez AM, Garcia JL, Diaz MP, Tourino CF. An approach to the biological, historical and psychological repercussions of gender verification in
Disciplining Sex: ‘Gender Verification’ Policies and Women’s Sport
In August 2009, South African middle distance runner Caster Semenya, then just 18 years old, crushed the competition in her international debut. Beating her closest competitor by more than two


Gender verification testing in sport.
  • E. Ferris
  • Education
    British medical bulletin
  • 1992
Gender verification testing in sport may in time be abolished when the sporting community are fully cognizant of its scientific and ethical implications.
Gender testing in the Olympics.
Since 1968 the International Olympics Committee (IOC) has required that individuals taking part in women's sporting events present evidence of "their femininity or female gender," but the efficacy of this policy is unknown.
Gender verification and the next Olympic games.
The purpose was to improve the reliability of the verification method, and it is stated that PCR is perfectly suited to, and economically compatible with, the constraints of the Olympic Games.
The Use and Misuse of Sex Chromatin Screening for `Gender Identification' of Female Athletes
It is shown herein that the sex chromatin screening method reveals only a small proportion of individuals with certain congenital chromosome abnormalities and other abnormal conditions without increased muscle strength, and proposed that the aims of gender identification should be defined and methods chosen that achieve the desired result.
Gender Verification and the Next Olympic Games-Reply
The IAAF is pleased to have the opportunity to respond to Dr Dingeon and to update the IAAF position on gender verification, stating that gender verification has now been abandoned.
Medical examination for health of all athletes replacing the need for gender verification in international sports. The International Amateur Athletic Federation Plan.
Given the great national prestige engendered and the considerable expenditures involved in international competitive sports, it is not surprising that individual athletes or even nations were unable to resist the temptation of using illicit methods to "win at all costs".
Sex determination in putative female athletes.
Investigation and verification of sex of women athletes in the Olympics is accomplished by studying the sexual chromatin on X-type chromosomes and by a fluorescent test for Y-type chromosomes. A
Femininity control at the XXth Universiade in Kobe, Japan.
From the experience of the femininity control tests for the participants of the XXth Universiade in Kobe, it is concluded that it is safer to screen the Y chromatin forfemininity control than the X chromatin.
Analytic review: nature and origin of males with XX sex chromosomes.
A review of the available data may serve to throw some light on a number of problems pertaining to males with the karyotype 46,XX, and it is hoped that by summarizing the present knowledge it will be easier to define more sharply the tasks of future research in the field.