Gender Identity Outcome in Female-Raised 46,XY Persons with Penile Agenesis, Cloacal Exstrophy of the Bladder, or Penile Ablation

@article{MeyerBahlburg2005GenderIO,
  title={Gender Identity Outcome in Female-Raised 46,XY Persons with Penile Agenesis, Cloacal Exstrophy of the Bladder, or Penile Ablation},
  author={Heino F L Meyer-Bahlburg},
  journal={Archives of Sexual Behavior},
  year={2005},
  volume={34},
  pages={423-438}
}
This review addresses the long-term gender outcome of gender assignment of persons with intersexuality and related conditions. The gender assignment to female of 46,XY newborns with severe genital abnormalities despite a presumably normal-male prenatal sex-hormone milieu is highly controversial because of variations in assumptions about the role of biological factors in gender identity formation. This article presents a literature review of gender outcome in three pertinent conditions (penile… 
Controversies of Sex Re-assignment in Genetic Males with Congenital Inadequacy of the Penis
TLDR
In 46XY genetic male children with CIP, male-sex assignment appears appropriate in non-hormonal conditions such as idiopathic micropenis, aphallia and exstrophy, and female-sex re-assignment appears acceptable in complete androgen insensitivity (CAIS), while partial androgens insensitivity syndrome (PAIS) patients are highly dissatisfied with the assignment of either sex.
Gender identity, gender assignment and reassignment in individuals with disorders of sex development: a major of dilemma
TLDR
Given the complexity of this management, DSD individuals and their families need to be supported by a specialized multidisciplinary team, which has been universally recognized as the best practice for intersexual conditions.
Psychosexual Aspects, Effects of Prenatal Androgen Exposure, and Gender Change in 46,XY Disorders of Sex Development
TLDR
Prenatal androgen exposure influenced psychosexual development in 46,XY DSD favoring male psychosexuality in all psychosexual outcomes, whereas the degree of external genital virilization did not influence these outcomes.
Psychological Long-Term Outcome in Intersex Conditions
TLDR
Recent reviews on gender dysphoria and gender change in patients with intersex conditions show that initial gender assignment still seems to be the best predictor of adult gender identity.
Gender Role, Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation in CAIS (“XY-Women”) Compared With Subfertile and Infertile 46,XX Women
TLDR
The findings support the assumption made by Meyer-Bahlburg (2010) that gender outcome in people withCAIS is more variable than generally stated and parents and professionals should be open to courses of gender development other than typically female in individuals with CAIS.
Psychosexual Development in Individuals with Disorders of Sex Development
TLDR
In this chapter, the major findings of the German clinical evaluation study which included about 400 individuals with DSD of all ages are presented and the conclusions follow the findings and the considerations of the National German Ethical Board issued in 2012.
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