Gender-Differentiated Production Features in Toy Commercials

  title={Gender-Differentiated Production Features in Toy Commercials},
  author={Daniel Chandler and Merris Griffiths},
  journal={Journal of Broadcasting \& Electronic Media},
  pages={503 - 520}
Twenty years ago researchers found that quite apart from the manifest content of television commercials aimed at children, certain formal features showed a marked tendency to vary according to the sex of the target consumers: in particular certain post-production features (transitions and voice-overs). The current study involved a content analysis of formal features in 117 toy advertisements broadcast on British television. Statistically significant differences were found for the same features… 
Gender-Role Portrayals in Children's Television Advertisements
ABSTRACT Using content analysis, gender role stereotyping in Portuguese television commercials aimed at children was examined. The goals of the study were to: (1) provide current data on level and
Children drawing toy commercials: re-imagining television production features
Using a selection of toy commercials that were designed and drawn (as part of a small-scale research study) by a sample of primary school children between the ages of 7 and 11 years, this article
Appeals in television advertising: A content analysis of commercials aimed at children and teenagers
Abstract A content analysis of 601 commercials was conducted in order to identify the appeals that characterize commercials aimed at children and teenagers. Our findings demonstrated that the use of
Progression on Nickelodeon? Gender-Role Stereotypes in Toy Commercials
A content analysis was conducted to examine gender-role stereotypes in toy commercials airing during the after-school hours in October, 2004, on the U.S. Nickelodeon network. The sample included 455
Selling Gender. The Representation of Boys and Girls in the Italian Toy Commercials
The article reports the results of a content analysis of 78 Italian toy commercials and 142 characters. The research aims to determine the level of sex typing in Italian television advertising
Gender stereotypes in children's television commercials and the effects on consumer purchasing behavior
Gender Stereotypes in Children’s Television Commercials and the Effects on Consumer Purchasing Behavior Joanne G. Asztalos This research presents an exploratory investigation on the extent of gender
Violent Commercials in Television Programs for Children
Abstract A study of Saturday morning television suggests children are exposed to more violent acts per minute by commercials promoting upcoming programs than by programming or other commercials.
Look Who ’ s Talking to Our Kids : Representations of Race and Gender in TV Commercials
There is a paucity of research examining the representations of race and gender in television commercials featured on popular children’s programs. The few studies that do exist tend to emphasize
CAS 497F: Children and Television
This course is designed to examine issues surrounding children and television from two different perspectives—media effects and rhetorical criticism. However, a background in either of these
Gender Jenga: The role of advertising in gender stereotypes within educational and non-educational games
Purpose – The study which this paper documents aimed to test nine hypotheses through the use of content analysis of gender stereotypes within the advertising of educational/non‐educational children's


A content analysis of gender differences in children's advertising
This content analysis of children's advertising examined the differences between television advertisements featuring only one sex of actors. The advertisements that were studied aired during a week
Television advertisements and the portrayal of gender
The portrayal of men and women in a sample of British television adverts was examined in an extension of the study by Manstead & McCulloch (1981). The central figures in 175 adverts were coded for
Sex differences on televised toy commercials
Televised toy commercials were observed during the 1977 (N=44) and 1978 (N=47) Christmas holiday seasons; children shown in the commercials were classified by sex and activity or passivity. In 1977
In Front of the Children: Screen Entertainment and Young Audiences
These essays by British and American writers, including Jack Zipes, Martin Barker and Maire Messenger Davies, explore such questions as: what is the appeal of Ninja Turtles or My Little Pony? What
The portrayal of men and women in U.S. television commercials: A recent content analysis and trends over 15 years
This article summarizes the content analyses of male and female portrayals in U.S. television commercials that have been published since 1971. The paper also includes the results of a content
Direct Responses to People on the Screen
An experiment was conducted to extend the research evidence concerning direct responses to the realm of social interaction by replicating, in the context of television viewing, key findings and
Subtle Sex-Role Cues in Children's Commercials.
Different production techniques for boys' and girls' ads create formal patterns that convey implicit meanings of masculinity and femininity.
Interaction of media, cognition and learning
Contents: R.E. Snow, Foreword. H. Gardner, Foreword. Preface. The Author. Reexamining Educational Research and Conceptions of Media. Characteristics of Symbol Systems. Relationships of Symbol Systems
Children's understanding of the forms of television
Children's understanding of television depends on two factors: their growing independence from its sensory demands and their increasing familiarity with its formal features of production.
The Influence of Cutting Rate on the Evaluation of Affective Content of Film
This investigation examined the hypothesis that the evaluation of the affective content of a film scene would be determined by the interaction of scene content and film cutting rate. Two simple