Gender Differences in Population Versus Media Body Sizes: A Comparison over Four Decades

  title={Gender Differences in Population Versus Media Body Sizes: A Comparison over Four Decades},
  author={Brenda L. Spitzer and Katherine Henderson and Marilyn T. Zivian},
  journal={Sex Roles},
Mean body mass indices (BMIs, kg/m2)of North Americans aged 18 to 24 collected from 11national health surveys were compared to: Playboycenterfold models, Miss America Pageant winners,andPlaygirl models. The survey samples were representative of themix of different ethnic and racial groups in Canada andthe USA. No racial or ethnic information was availablefor either the Playboy women or the Miss America Pageant winners. Ninety percent of the Playgirlmen were white; 10%, black; 1.5%, Hispanic… 

Temporal Changes in Anthropometric Measurements of Idealized Females and Young Women in General

The general trend for all groups was to move from a less curvaceous body shape in the early part of the twentieth century to a more curvaceous shape at mid-century and returning to a less curved shape at the end of the century.

Gender and Age Differences in the Relationship Between Body Mass Index and Perceived Weight: Exploring the Paradox

Past research has shown a gender-based paradox in the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and perceived weight. That is, even though males are more likely than females to be overweight,

Social comparison, ethnicity, body image, and media exposure to thin-ideal models: an experimental study

Social Comparison, Ethnicity, Body Image, and Media Exposure to Thin-Ideal Models: An Experimental Study. (August 2006) Cortney Soderlind Warren, B.A. Macalester College; M.S., Texas A&M University

Race, Obesity, and the Puzzle of Gender Specificity

Obesity is significantly more prevalent among non-Hispanic African-American (henceforth “black”) women than among non-Hispanic white American (henceforth “white”) women. These differences have

The Attractive Female Body Weight and Female Body Dissatisfaction in 26 Countries Across 10 World Regions: Results of the International Body Project I

Results indicated there were significant cross-regional differences in the ideal female figure and body dissatisfaction, but effect sizes were small across high-socioeconomic-status (SES) sites.

Does Body Weight Dissatisfaction Change with Age? A Cross-Sectional Analysis of American Women

This study explored the relationship between age and body weight dissatisfaction in American women using a cross-sectional approach. A sample of 55 women between the ages of 22 and 65 completed a

Ideal Body Image: A Male Perspective on Self

Waif goodbye! Average-size female models promote positive body image and appeal to consumers

It is suggested that average-size female models can promote positive body image and appeal to consumers and be an effective alternative to current media imagery.



Special Issues Regarding Obesity in Minority Populations

Comparison of minority and white populations by aspects of obesity emphasizes important minority health issues and poses certain challenges for future obesity research.

Men and body image: are males satisfied with their body weight?

Men and women who wished to lose weight shared negative body perceptions: both groups viewed themselves as overweight, and both expressed dissatisfaction with body shape, but men used exercise for weight control while women resorted to restricted calorie diets.

Body image, attitudes to weight, and misperceptions of figure preferences of the opposite sex: a comparison of men and women in two generations.

Although fathers resembled mothers and daughters in their perception of being overweight, they were more similar to their sons in being relatively unconcerned about weight and eating.

Diet vs. shape content of popular male and female magazines: A dose-response relationship to the incidence of eating disorders?

We hypothesized that the substantial difference in incidence of eating disorders between men and women would be correlated with a similar difference in sociocul-tural norms promoting thinness. The 10

Cultural expectations of thinness in women: An update.

An investigation of current American society's depiction of the ideal female body was performed. Body measurements of Playboy magazine centerfolds and Miss America contestants for 1979–1988 indicated

From the Cleavers to the Clintons: role choices and body orientation as reflected in magazine article content.

It is concluded that apparent trends toward healthier habits are not just thinness goals revisited, and time-trend analyses indicated a decrease in emphasis on weight loss in women's magazines over the period studied, and a statistical trend for an increase in weight loss focus in men's magazines.

Body image satisfaction, dieting beliefs, and weight loss behaviors in adolescent girls and boys

Despite having similar weight distributions around the expected norm, girls were significantly more dissatisfied with their bodies than boys, and Body Mass Index was positively related to body dissatisfaction in girls and boys, while higher exercise levels were related to higher body satisfaction in boys.

Weight dissatisfaction and weight loss attempts among Canadian adults. Canadian Heart Health Surveys Research Group.

Substantial numbers of men whose BMI places them at increased health risk appear to be content with their weight and are not attempting to reduce it, while women, especially the young and middle-aged, are likely to consider themselves above their desired weight and to be trying to lose weight, even when their weight is within acceptable limits.

A study of appearance anxiety in young men

Appearance anxiety describes an apprehension about aspects of one’s physical appearance and how others evaluate them. To date, research in this area has focused primarily on a female population. In

U.S. trends in feminine beauty and overadaptation

Men place more importance on the physical attractiveness of women than women do on the physical attractiveness of men. As a result, women's social opportunities are more affected by their physical