Gender Differences in Politician Persistence

  title={Gender Differences in Politician Persistence},
  author={Melanie R. Wasserman},
Why are women underrepresented in politics? This paper documents gender differences in the career paths of novice politicians by studying the persistence of candidates after they win or lose elections. I track the political trajectories of over 11,000 candidates in local California elections and use a regression discontinuity approach. Losing an election causes 50 percent more attrition among female than male candidates: an electoral loss causes men to be 16 percentage points less likely to run… 
Gender Differences in Political Career Progression: Evidence from U.S. Elections
This paper establishes the presence of a substantial gender gap in the relationship between state legislature service and the subsequent pursuit of a Congressional career. The empirical approach uses
She Persisted: Gender, Electoral Loss, and the Decision to Run Again
Losing elections is a political reality for most candidates. While much fanfare was made of the historic number of women who won in 2018, three times as many women ran and lost. And although we know
Closing the Gender Gap in Leadership Positions: Can Expanding the Pipeline Increase Parity?
Gender gaps in leadership roles may be reduced by increasing the number of women in career stages that typically precede high-status positions. This can occur by increasing the supply of experienced
Up the Political Ladder: Gender Parity in the Effects of Electoral Defeats
This paper investigates whether an electoral defeat has different effects on the subsequent political involvement of male and female candidates for state office. Using US state legislative election
Does Local Female Political Representation Empower Women to Run for Higher Office? Evidence from State and National Legislatures in India
Does increasing the number of women in career stages that precede high-level positions affect female representation at the top of the career ladder? State legislature elections narrowly won by
A Century of the American Woman Voter: Sex Gaps in Political Participation, Preferences, and Partisanship Since Women's Enfranchisement
This year marks the centennial of the Nineteenth Amendment, which provided American women a constitutional guarantee to the franchise. We assemble data from a variety of sources to document and
Experience, institutions, and candidate emergence: the political career returns to state legislative service
More than half of the current members of the US Congress served in their state legislature prior to holding federal office. We quantify the relationship between state legislative service and career
Women Who Persist: Pathways to Power in Eastern Indonesia
In contrast to accounts that explain increases in women’s political representation by reference to structural and institutional factors, this article draws attention to the agency of women
Gender Differences in Reactions to Failure in High-Stakes Competition: Evidence from the National College Entrance Exam Retakes
We document gender differences in reactions to failure in the National College Entrance Exam, an extremely high-stakes exam that solely determines college admission outcomes for almost all teenagers
Early Career, Life-Cycle Choices, and Gender
Do early labor market experiences determine longer-run life and career outcomes, and do they operate differentially for males and females? We study this question in the context of the physician labor


Should Women Win More Often than Men? The Roots of Electoral Success and Gender Bias in U.S. House Elections
Extensive research shows that when women run for Congress, they win as often as men. We find that these gender neutral electoral outcomes mask important differences between men’s and women’s
Pathbreakers? Women's Electoral Success and Future Political Participation
We investigate whether the event of a woman being competitively elected as a state legislator encourages the subsequent political participation of women, using a regression discontinuity design on
The Jackie (and Jill) Robinson Effect: Why Do Congresswomen Outperform Congressmen?
We argue that the process of selection into political office is different for women than it is for men, which results in important differences in the performance of male and female legislators once
Gender Interactions within Hierarchies: Evidence from the Political Arena
This paper studies gender interactions within hierarchical organizations using a large data set on the duration of Italian municipal governments elected between 1993 and 2003. A municipal government
Gender Quotas and the Crisis of the Mediocre Man: Theory and Evidence from Sweden
Efforts to increase female political representation are often thought to be at odds with meritocracy. This paper develops a theoretical framework and an empirical analysis to examine this idea. We
Gendered Recruitment without Trying: How Local Party Recruiters Affect Women's Representation
Do strong and active political parties enhance women's representation, or do they contribute to the ongoing inequality in men's and women's candidacy rates? Studies have examined this question by
Does the Election of a Female Leader Clear the Way for More Women in Politics
Women remain underrepresented in politics and it remains unclear how this might change. In this paper, we investigate whether female council candidates receive more preferential votes when a female
Sex and Politics: Do Female Legislators Aect State Spending?
Between 1970 and 2000 women more than quintupled their presence in US state legisla- tures. It is widely believed that women's presence in public o¢ ce aects policy outcomes. However, economic
Powerful Women: Does Exposure Reduce Bias?
We exploit random assignment of gender quotas across Indian village councils to investigate whether having a female chief councillor affects public opinion towards female leaders. Villagers who have