Gender Differences in Negative Campaigning: The Impact of Party Environments

  title={Gender Differences in Negative Campaigning: The Impact of Party Environments},
  author={Laurenz Ennser-Jedenastik and Martin Dolezal and Wolfgang C. M{\"u}ller},
  journal={Politics \& Gender},
  pages={81 - 106}
How does gender affect the attack strategies of political actors? Do men and women diverge in their propensity to go negative and in their choice of targets? Extant research has long sought to shed light on these questions (e.g., Brooks 2010; Kahn 1993; Krupnikov and Bauer 2014; Proctor, Schenck-Hamlin, and Haase 1994; Walter 2013). Among all the possible determinants of attack behavior in elections, candidate gender has been one of the most “heavily studied” (Grossmann 2012, 2). However, the… 
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