Gender Differences in Language Use: An Analysis of 14,000 Text Samples

  title={Gender Differences in Language Use: An Analysis of 14,000 Text Samples},
  author={M. Newman and Carla J. Groom and Lori D. Handelman and J. Pennebaker},
  journal={Discourse Processes},
  pages={211 - 236}
Differences in the ways that men and women use language have long been of interest in the study of discourse. Despite extensive theorizing, actual empirical investigations have yet to converge on a coherent picture of gender differences in language. A significant reason is the lack of agreement over the best way to analyze language. In this research, gender differences in language use were examined using standardized categories to analyze a database of over 14,000 text files from 70 separate… Expand
Gender Differences in Vocabulary Use in Essay Writing by University Students
Abstract This study investigates gender differences in language use in argumentative essays written by male and female university students on designated topics under controlled conditions. PreviousExpand
Language and gender in Congressional speech
  • Bei Yu
  • Psychology, Computer Science
  • Lit. Linguistic Comput.
  • 2014
A trend analysis found that gender differences in language use have consistently existed in the Congressional speeches over the past 20 years, regardless of the topic of debate. Expand
Gendered Language in Interactive Discourse
It is found that use of language tokens by the confederate promoted use of the same token by their interlocutor, regardless of knowledge of theConfederate’s gender, which is inconsistent with either the notion that gendered language is context independent (as suggested in the gender-as-culture hypothesis) or the notion That genderedlanguage only emerges when gender is made salient, as would, in these studies, occur in mixed-gendered groups. Expand
Women are Warmer but No Less Assertive than Men: Gender and Language on Facebook
Computational linguistic analysis combined with methods to automatically label topics offer means for testing psychological theories unobtrusively at large scale and substantial gender differences in the use of affiliative language are found. Expand
Language and Gender
The research will be focusing on gender language differences. It shows the differences on different texts samples. This research includes an analysis of particular data to determine gender languageExpand
Gender differences in the language of the Map Task dialogues
A number of studies have revealed differences in distributions of linguistic features in the language produced by males and females and for a variety of text types (formal and informal prose,Expand
A study of ontogenetic level of language development and gender differences affecting language use in Acehnese language
There have been numerous studies analysing gender differences in language use. Most of them predominantly adopted static or hierarchical approach with obsolete understanding of gender differences.Expand
Gender differences in communicative abstraction.
It is found that women communicate more concretely than men when an audience is described as being psychologically close, and preliminary support for mediation of gender differences in linguistic abstraction by women's tendency to interact in small social networks is found. Expand
Gender differences in the personal pronouns usage on the corpus of congressional speeches
Gender differences in language have been extensively investigated by sociolinguists since the 1960s. This paper aimed to study gender differences in the personal pronouns usage on the corpus of theExpand
Gender variation in writing: Analyzing online dating ads
In the present study, a corpus of more than 18,000 online dating ads (downloaded from, ~ 1.4 million words) is used to investigate differences in language use between men and women inExpand


Words of wisdom: language use over the life span.
Two projects explored the links between language use and aging by analyzing the collected works of 10 well-known novelists, playwrights, and poets who lived over the last 500 years and found that with increasing age, individuals use more positive and fewer negative affect words, use fewer self-references, and demonstrate a general pattern of increasing cognitive complexity. Expand
Linguistic styles: language use as an individual difference.
The data suggest that linguistic style is an independent and meaningful way of exploring personality, and factor structure, and validity of written language using a word-based, computerized text analysis program. Expand
Gender-Linked Linguistic Behavior in Television Interviews
We examined linguistic behavior among men and women in unscripted, televised interviews. Women used language that focused on social and sensory processes, and they expressed themselves with simplerExpand
Male/female language differences and attributional consequences in a public speaking situation: Toward an explanation of the gender‐linked language effect
One‐minute transcripts of 30 university students' first in‐class public speeches earlier (Mulac & Lundell, 1982a) demonstrated the Gender‐Linked Language Effect: females rated higher onExpand
The Folk-Linguistics of Women's Speech: An Empirical Examination.
Folk‐linguists have advanced the claim that women's speech differs from men's in several significant ways that serve to reflect and reinforce the lower status of women in this society. This studyExpand
Empirical Support for the Gender-as-Culture Hypothesis: An Intercultural Analysis of Male/Female Language Differences.
This investigation provided a test of the gender-as-culture, or two cultures, hypothesis proposed by Maltz and Borker (1982) to explain male/female differences in language use. Analysis of previousExpand
Women's language: Uncertainty or interpersonal sensitivity and emotionality?
Six differences in linguistic behavior in same-sex and mixed-sex problem-solving groups were explored. Small groups of all women, all men, and mixed sex were run and videotaped. Linguistic behaviorExpand
Predicting gender from electronic discourse.
It is established that people use gender-preferential language in informal electronic discourse and readers of these messages can use these gender-linked language differences to identify the author's gender. Expand
Language With Character: A Stratified Corpus Comparison of Individual Differences in E-Mail Communication
To what extent does the wording and syntactic form of people's writing reflect their personalities? Using a bottom-up stratified corpus comparison, rather than the top-down content analysisExpand
Linguistic Contributors to the Gender-Linked Language Effect
Forty Speakers (20 male, 20 female), ranging from 11 to 69 years of age, described landscape photographs orally to a researcher. Orthographic transcripts were analysed for 31 linguistic variables. AExpand