Gender-Affirming Hormone Therapy for Transgender Females.

  title={Gender-Affirming Hormone Therapy for Transgender Females.},
  author={John F. Randolph},
  journal={Clinical Obstetrics \& Gynecology},
  • J. Randolph
  • Published 1 December 2018
  • Medicine
  • Clinical Obstetrics & Gynecology
The provision of hormone therapy, both estrogens and antiandrogens, to adult transgender females is well within the scope of practice of the obstetrician gynecologist. The goal is to induce feminizing changes and suppress previously developed masculinization. Estrogens in sufficient doses will usually achieve both goals with augmentation by antiandrogens. The primary short-term risk of estrogens is thrombosis, but long-term risk in transgender females is unclear. Optimal care requires… 

Management of endocrine disease: Optimal feminizing hormone treatment in transgender people.

Evidence is discussed regarding established and upcoming feminizing treatment for adult transgender women or for gender non-binary people seeking feminization, with special focus on the pharmacotherapy of feminizing hormonal therapy.

Feminizing gender-affirming hormone therapy for the transgender and gender diverse population: An overview of treatment modality, monitoring, and risks.

Feminizing GAHT appears to carry a low risk profile for most patients; however, further research describing the risks of hormone management around the time of gender-affirming surgery and in the aging TGD population is needed to optimize GAHT in the context of the evolving health risks over a TGD patient's lifespan.

Medical Transition for Gender Diverse Patients

High-quality, long-term studies on the effectiveness and safety of various gender-affirming hormone treatment regimens are lacking, but the currently available evidence suggests that it is overall safe and effective with appropriate oversight.

Fertility preservation options for transgender and gender-nonconforming individuals

  • M. Moravek
  • Biology
    Current opinion in obstetrics & gynecology
  • 2019
There is currently a paucity of data on the fertility effects of gender-affirming hormones, necessitating fertility preservation counseling prior to initiation of therapy and several modifications can be made to fertility preservation protocols and procedures to decrease gender dysphoria or distress in transgender individuals.

Breast Cancer in Transgenders: Narrative Review

There are no international guidelines on screening and management of transgender patients but it appears that breast screening before cosmetic mastectomy, exposure to hormonal therapy for more than 5 years, and as per natal women screening guidelines should be offered to the patient with detailed discussion on the harms and benefits of the same.

Fertility Desire and Motivation Among Individuals with Gender Dysphoria: A Comparative Study

Abstract Despite receiving Gender-Affirming Hormone Therapy or Gender-Affirming Surgery, which may adversely impact their fertility, people with Gender Dysphoria (GD) may desire to form families. In

Continuing perioperative estrogen therapy does not increase venous thromboembolic events in transgender patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Perioperative estrogen therapy does not increase VTE risk on male to female gender-affirming surgery, and therefore, estrogen therapy may be continued perioperatively in vaginoplasty.

TransCOVID: Does Gender-Affirming Hormone Therapy Play a Role in Contracting COVID-19?

The findings indicate that individuals with FtM GD who receive testosterone treatment within the scope of GAHT are at higher risk of contracting COVID-19 and that the clinicians who follow-up on GAHT should be more careful about this issue.



Hormone Treatment of the Adult Transsexual Patient

  • L. Gooren
  • Medicine, Biology
    Hormone Research in Paediatrics
  • 2005
The goal of treatment in female-to-male transsexuals is to induce virilization, including a male pattern of sexual hair, a male voice and male physical contours, and to stop menses.

Long-term treatment of transsexuals with cross-sex hormones: extensive personal experience.

Cross-sex hormone treatment of transsexuals seems acceptably safe over the short and medium term, but solid clinical data are lacking.

Cardiovascular Disease Among Transgender Adults Receiving Hormone Therapy

Cross-sex hormone therapy (CSHT), particularly with testosterone, is associated with worsening cardiovascular risk factors in transgender men but not with increases in cardiovascular morbidity or mortality, and the literature regarding the association between CSHT and CVD in transgender adults is summarized.

Spironolactone with physiological female steroids for presurgical therapy of male-to-female transsexualism

The clinical and hormonal response to 12-month therapy with the antiandrogen, spironolactone, in conjunction with near-physiologic doses of female gonadal steroids in 50 transsexual males, is

Medical Management of Adult Transsexual Persons

Methods, including both pharmacotherapy and surgical interventions, are described for effective medical management of both male and female adults with GID, an increasingly recognized medical condition with an expanding body of medical literature to support the use of established therapeutic guidelines.

Mortality and morbidity in transsexual subjects treated with cross‐sex hormones

Investigation of mortality and morbidity figures in a large group of transsexual subjects receiving cross‐sex hormone treatment finds that the optimum steroid hormone treatment regimes for transsexual subjects has not yet been established.

Effects of conjugated equine estrogen in postmenopausal women with hysterectomy: the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial.

The use of conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) increases the risk of stroke, decreases therisk of hip fracture, and does not affect CHD incidence in postmenopausal women with prior hysterectomy over an average of 6.8 years, indicating no overall benefit.

Cross-sex Hormones and Acute Cardiovascular Events in Transgender Persons

This objective was to compare ACVE incidence rates in a cohort of transgender persons enrolled in 3 such health care systems with rates observed in age-, race-, site-, and membership-matched cisgender men and women (reference cohorts).

Hormonal therapy and sex reassignment: a systematic review and meta‐analysis of quality of life and psychosocial outcomes

The prognosis of individuals with gender identity disorder (GID) receiving hormonal therapy as a part of sex reassignment in terms of quality of life and other self‐reported psychosocial outcomes is assessed.