Gender, Status, and Leadership

  title={Gender, Status, and Leadership},
  author={Cecilia L. Ridgeway},
  journal={Journal of Social Issues},
  • C. Ridgeway
  • Published 2001
  • Sociology
  • Journal of Social Issues
More than a trait of individuals, gender is an institutionalized system of social practices. The gender system is deeply entwined with social hierarchy and leadership because gender stereotypes contain status beliefs that associate greater status worthiness and competence with men than women. This review uses expectation states theory to describe how gender status beliefs create a network of constraining expectations and interpersonal reactions that is a major cause of the “glass ceiling.” In… 
The Power of Language: Gender, Status, and Agency in Performance Evaluations
In the workplace, women often encounter gender stereotypes and biases that reinforce the existing gender hierarchy, may hinder women’s career aspirations and retention, and may limit their ability to
Status, Personality, and Gender Stereotyping: Response to Commentators
Status differences between women and men can explain why they perceive themselves as having different personality traits. The status explanation of gender stereotyping is discussed in relation to two
Unpacking the Gender System
According to the perspective developed in this article, widely shared, hegemonic cultural beliefs about gender and their impact in what the authors call “social relational” contexts are among the
Working Women: Perception and Reality
This review article examines the stereotypes of female leadership and how culturally driven gender roles of women impact their career choices and professional advancement in organizations. A few
Me, a Woman and a Leader: Antecedents and Consequences of the Identity Conflict of Women Leaders
This paper focuses on women leaders’ self-views linked to their gender and leader identities. In particular, we examine the antecedents and psychological and motivational consequences of identity
This article reviews social psychological and organizational development literature on gender stereotypes and leadership style and effectiveness and explores its relevance for leadership in higher
Conceptual Review of Underrepresentation of Women in Senior Leadership Positions From a Perspective of Gendered Social Status in the Workplace
An increasing number of studies report more similarities than differences in leadership styles between women and men. However, the evident vertical gender segregation at top management levels still
Gender and Leadership Aspiration: Supervisor Gender, Support, and Job Control
Understanding the role of leadership aspiration in the under-representation of female leaders is important, because aspiration is a key predictor of hierarchical advancement. A neglected perspective


Status, communality, and agency: implications for stereotypes of gender and other groups.
Four studies addressed the hypothesis, based on correspondence bias, that low- relative to high-status individuals are perceived as more communal and less agentic, and received clear support in Studies 3 and 4, in which a general instantiation of status independent of occupations, social roles, and gender was adopted.
Gender and Interpersonal Task Behaviors: Status Expectation Accounts
In this paper we argue for the utility of status characteristics theory (Berger et al. 1977) in accounting for research concerned with gender differences in interpersonal task situations. We state
Gender and the effectiveness of leaders: a meta-analysis.
Aggregated over the organizational and laboratory experimental studies in the sample, male and female leaders were equally effective, however, consistent with the assumption that the congruence of leadership roles with leaders' gender enhances effectiveness, men were more effective than women in roles that were defined in more masculine terms.
▪ Abstract The gender system includes processes that both define males and females as different in socially significant ways and justify inequality on the basis of that difference. Gender is
Sex vs. status in sex-associated stereotypes
The trait content of sex stereotypes can be created by social role status alone, without reference to sex. In contemporary culture sex and role status are confounded: Authority roles are played by
Role congruity theory of prejudice toward female leaders.
Evidence from varied research paradigms substantiates that consequences of perceived incongruity between the female gender role and leadership roles are more difficult for women to become leaders and to achieve success in leadership roles.
Theorists have posited that investment in production has a radical impact on women's gender-role attitudes, whereas investment in reproduction exerts a conservative influence. Informed by an
Effects of authority structures and gender on interaction in same-sex task groups
In this paper we examine the possible effects of the social composition of authority structures on interaction in same-sex task groups in organizations. We derive predictions about the effects of
Can gender inequalities be reduced
Research demonstrates that sex or gender remains a powerful basis of inequality in the expectations and behavior of men and women in mixed-sex task groups. Drawing upon the work of Epstein (1970) and
Sex differences in interaction style as a product of perceived sex differences in competence.
Findings support the idea that the gender differences obtained in interaction when status was not specified were partially a function of group members' belief that the sexes differ in competence.