The growth process of high-aspect-ratio gold nanorods in gelled surfactant solution was studied. As for the application of gold nanorods, the surface plasmon is quite useful, whose absorption depends on their aspect ratio. Hence it is important to synthesize gold nanorods with favorable aspect ratio in high yield. For shorter nanorods (aspect ratio < -10), the synthesis and the growth mechanism have been studied well. For the longer nanorods (aspect ratio > -30), however, the growth mechanism has not yet been understood well, although it has been known that the high-aspect-ratio gold nanorods could be synthesized in high yield in gelled surfactant solution. In this paper, we studied the relationship between the growth process of high-aspect-ratio gold nanorods and the gelation of surfactant growth-solution. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) revealed the microscopic feature of gelation as the structural transition of self-assembly of surfactant molecules from micellar to lamellar. These results will be helpful for better understanding on the growth mechanism of high-aspect-ratio gold nanorods.