Gauge Invariance and Mass

@article{Schwinger1962GaugeIA,
  title={Gauge Invariance and Mass},
  author={J. Schwinger},
  journal={Physical Review},
  year={1962},
  volume={125},
  pages={2425-2429}
}
It is argued that the gauge invariance of a vector field does not necessarily imply zero mass for an associated particle if the current vector coupling is sufficiently strong. This situation may permit a deeper understanding of nucleonic charge conservation as a manifestation of a gauge invariance, without the obvious conflict with experience that a massless particle entails. (auth) 
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