Gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors and second primary malignancies.

  title={Gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors and second primary malignancies.},
  author={Nizar Habal and Carl Sims and Anton J. Bilchik},
  journal={Journal of surgical oncology},
  volume={75 4},
The development of second primary malignancies (SPM) in patients with gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors is a well-described phenomenon, with reported rates as high as 55%. There is a predilection for gastrointestinal and genitourinary adenocarcinomas, but a variety of other malignancies have been reported as well. The etiology of this malignant predisposition may be rooted in the tumorigenic properties of the various neuroendocrine peptides elaborated and secreted by neuroendocrine cells… CONTINUE READING


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