The C825T Polymorphism of the G-Protein β3 Gene as a Risk Factor for Functional Dyspepsia: A Meta-Analysis
OBJECTIVES:Visceral hypersensitivity is involved in the etiology of reflux symptoms. Familial clustering and twin studies demonstrated a genetic predisposition to gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) mediate the response to acid, neurotransmitters and humoral factors modulating esophageal sensory function. Thus, polymorphisms in G-proteins are putative genetic factors contributing to GERD manifestation. A functional polymorphism in the G-protein β3 subunit gene (GNB3) is associated with functional dyspepsia (FD), in which visceral hypersensitivity is implicated in symptom generation. We evaluated the association of the GNB3 C825T polymorphism with GERD and GERD subgroups classified according to esophageal acid exposure time, symptom–reflux correlation, or coexistence of FD and/or irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms.METHODS:In total, 363 GERD patients, defined as having esophageal pH<4 ≥6% of time and/or symptom index (SI) ≥50% or symptom association probability (SAP) ≥95%, participated. In addition, 373 healthy controls free of gastrointestinal symptoms were studied. Genotyping was performed by molecular beacon assay.RESULTS:The CT genotype was more prevalent in GERD patients relative to healthy controls (adjusted odds ratio (OR)=1.43, 95% CI 1.04–1.98). GERD patients sensitive to physiological amounts of reflux displayed a higher OR (1.59), as did GERD patients with a positive symptom association score (1.50). The strongest association was detected in patients without concomitant FD and/or IBS symptoms (OR=1.66).CONCLUSIONS:GERD is associated with GNB3 C825T. The results for GERD subgroups support the hypothesis that enhanced perception of reflux events, as a consequence of the increased signal transduction upon GPCR activation associated with the 825T allele, underlies this association.