Gas embolism: pathophysiology and treatment

@article{Hulst2003GasEP,
  title={Gas embolism: pathophysiology and treatment},
  author={Robert A. Hulst and J. Klein and Burkhard Lachmann},
  journal={Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging},
  year={2003},
  volume={23}
}
Based on a literature search, an overview is presented of the pathophysiology of venous and arterial gas embolism in the experimental and clinical environment, as well as the relevance and aims of diagnostics and treatment of gas embolism. The review starts with a few historical observations and then addresses venous air embolism by discussing pulmonary vascular filtration, entrapment, and the clinical occurrence of venous air emboli. The section on arterial gas embolism deals with the main… 
Pathophysiology and Clinical Implications
TLDR
Evidence of the biological and clinical detrimental effects of microbubbles as demonstrated by studies in animal models and humans are presented, and management of the microbubble problem is discussed with regard to detection, prevention, and treatment.
HBO and gas embolism
TLDR
The pathophysiology, etiology, diagnosis and treatment of gas embolism is reviewed, which occurs with the entry of gas into the circulatory system from the vein, artery or both.
Lower Extremity Arterial Air Embolism Secondary to Clostridial Gas Gangrene
TLDR
Gas gangrene (GG) as the etiologic factor and the possible pathophysiologic mechanisms for air emboli in this situation, as well as the thrombotic complications, are discussed.
Cerebral arterial gas embolism from attempted mechanical thrombectomy: recovery following hyperbaric oxygen therapy
TLDR
Although there are no previous descriptions of its successful treatment with hyperbaric oxygen therapy following mechanical thrombectomy, this is likely to become more common as mechanical thROMbectomy is increasingly used worldwide to treat acute ischaemic stroke.
Vascular air embolism: A silent hazard to patient safety
Microbubbles: pathophysiology and clinical implications.
TLDR
Evidence of the biological and clinical detrimental effects of microbubbles as demonstrated by studies in animal models and humans are presented, and management of the microbubble problem is discussed with regard to detection, prevention, and treatment.
Multimodal imaging approach to cerebral gas embolism lesions.
A rare case of fatal venous and cerebral air embolism.
TLDR
The case of a 3-year-old child who developed a fatal venous and cerebral embolism during neurosurgery for the treatment of skull fractures with epidural and subdural bleeding due to blunt head and chest trauma resulting from a television falling on her is described.
Arterial and Venous Air Emboli in Health Care.
  • G. Myers
  • Medicine, Engineering
    The journal of extra-corporeal technology
  • 2021
There are many risks and complexities associated with the performance of cardiac surgery. All specialists in this surgical/intensive care arena use tools and techniques to prevent and avoid even the
Diagnosis and Treatment of Vascular Air Embolism
TLDR
A comprehensive review of the etiology and diagnosis of vascular air embolism, including approaches to prevention and management based on experimental and clinical data is presented and this compendium of information will permit the healthcare professional to rapidly assess the relative risk of vascularAir Embolism and implement monitoring and treatment strategies appropriate for the planned invasive procedure.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 161 REFERENCES
Cerebral arterial gas embolism following diagnostic bronchoscopy: delayed treatment with hyperbaric oxygen
TLDR
A patient with presumed CAGE made a complete recovery following treatment with hyperbaric oxygen therapy even though it was initiated after a significant time delay.
Delayed hyperbaric treatment of cerebral air embolism.
TLDR
The salutary effects of HBO in a subgroup of patients suggest that this treatment should be used in cerebral air embolism even when referral to a hyperbaric facility is delayed, and indeed it was used to treat five patients resulting from invasive medical procedures.
Cerebral air embolism in the dog.
TLDR
Interest in the danger of air embolism has increased since the advent of open-heart surgery and the use of the artificial oxygenator.
Cerebral Air Embolism Resulting from Invasive Medical Procedures Treatment with Hyperbaric Oxygen
TLDR
The treatment of cerebral air embolism with hyperbaric oxygen is based upon mechanical compression of air bubbles to a much smaller size and the delivery of high doses of oxygen to ischemic brain tissue.
Iatrogenic cerebral air embolism: importance of an early hyperbaric oxygenation
TLDR
The beneficial effect of an early HBO in air embolism is stressed, the importance of an increased awareness of physicians concerned with this severe complication, and the need to develop techniques to detect air emboli in the cerebral circulation are stressed.
Systemic air embolism after lung trauma.
TLDR
By adopting a problem-based solution through innovative airway and ventilation management, anesthesiologists may significantly alter and improve the morbidity and mortality rate of SAE resulting from chest trauma.
The pathophysiology of cerebral arterial gas embolism.
TLDR
It seems prudent to take all practical steps to prevent introduction of arterial bubbles in cardiac surgery, and to distinguish between gaseous and particulate emboli or to size emboli accurately is not readily available.
Recommendations for Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy of Cerebral Air Embolism Based on a Mathematical Model of Bubble Absorption
TLDR
This analysis suggests that if the diagnosis of massive CAAE is suspected, computerized tomography should be performed, and consideration should be given to HBO therapy if the CAAe are large enough to be visualized, even if patient transfer to a HBO facility will require several hours.
Neurologic manifestations of cerebral air embolism as a complication of central venous catheterization
TLDR
When caring for critically ill patients needing central venous catheterization, nursing staff and physicians should be aware of this potentially lethal complication.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...