Gammahydroxybutyrate: An endogenous regulator of energy metabolism

  title={Gammahydroxybutyrate: An endogenous regulator of energy metabolism},
  author={Mortimer Mamelak},
  journal={Neuroscience \& Biobehavioral Reviews},
  • M. Mamelak
  • Published 1 December 1989
  • Biology
  • Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews

γ-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) - Effects on Human Performance and Behavior.

This monograph reviews the chemistry of GHB and its precursor drugs, their reported medicinal and recreational uses, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, metabolism, analytical methodology, and interpretation issues such as postmortem endogenous concentrations and specimen storage conditions.

Metabolic Alterations Associated with γ-Hydroxybutyric Acid and the Potential of Metabolites as Biomarkers of Its Exposure

This mini-review provides an overview of GHB-associated metabolic alterations and explores the potential of metabolites for application as biomarkers ofGHB exposure, and highlights the significance of further metabolomics and metabolism studies for the discovery of practical peripheral biomarkers for GHB exposure.

Does γ-Hydroxybutyrate Inhibit or Stimulate Central da Release?

Following a critical review of the literature, the present report suggests that GHB does inhibit rather than stimulate presynaptic DA release in consonance with its behavioral and pharmacological properties.

Gamma-hydroxy butyric acid: Neurotransmitter, sedative and party drug

The purpose of this article is to outline the neurophysiological, pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic characteristics ofGHB, and to summarize the potential fields of use and misuse of GHB in clinical medicine and toxicology.

GHB acid: A rage or reprive

The primary effects of GHB use are those of a CNS depressant and therefore range from relaxation, to euphoria, confusion, amnesia, hallucinations, and coma, and the drug has an addictive potential if used for long term.

Different actions of γ-hydroxybutyrate: A critical outlook

Gamma-hydroxybutyrate acid is a naturally occurring analog of GABA in the mammalian brain and can be therapeutically used for basic sedation in intensive care units and its clinical applicability is discussed.

Mechanisms for the Specific Properties of γ‐Hydroxybutyrate in Brain

The basic mechanistic role of endogenous GHB in brain as well as the properties and mechanisms of action for therapeutic clinical doses of exogenous GHB are reviewed to help for the design of GHB‐like drugs active at lower doses and devoid of major side effects.



A comparison of the effects of γ-hydroxybutyrate and γ-butyrolactone on cerebral carbohydrate metabolism

The major qualitative difference between the two drugs was that higher doses of GBL were associated with additional decreases of citrate and glutamate, and it is proposed that these differences were secondary to hypercapnia and not due to a distinctive primary action of G BL.

A High‐Affinity, Na+‐Dependent Uptake System for γ‐Hydroxybutyrate in Membrane Vesicles Prepared from Rat Brain

A series of related compounds, including aryl‐or alkyl‐derivatives, has been examined for ability to inhibit GHB uptake, indicative of its possible physiological role and also of the existence of a high‐affinity uptake system for GHB.


The metabolism of γ‐hydroxybutyrate (GHB) was studied by following the fate of [1‐14C]GHB in mouse brain after an intravenous injection and the labelling pattern was consistent with the oxidation of GHB via succinate through the cycle, rather than with β‐oxidation ofGHB.

The effects of gamma-hydroxybutyrate on sleep.

It is suggested that GHB may serve as the prototype for a new class of hypnotic compounds derived from natural sources and capable of activating the neurological mechanisms of normal human sleep.