Gamma interferon and granulocyte/monocyte colony-stimulating factor prevent endotoxin tolerance in human monocytes by promoting interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase expression and its association to MyD88 and not by modulating TLR4 expression.

Abstract

Endotoxin tolerance is characterized by a decreased production of proinflammatory cytokines by cultured leukocytes in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) following a first exposure to the same stimulus. Gamma interferon (IFNgamma) and granulocyte/monocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) are immunostimulatory cytokines that prime monocytes and prevent… (More)

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