Gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) intoxication.

@article{Mason2002GammaHA,
  title={Gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) intoxication.},
  author={Phillip E. Mason and William P. Kerns},
  journal={Academic emergency medicine : official journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine},
  year={2002},
  volume={9 7},
  pages={
          730-9
        }
}
  • P. MasonW. Kerns
  • Published 2002
  • Medicine
  • Academic emergency medicine : official journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a naturally occurring analog of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) that has been used in research and clinical medicine for many years. In the past decade it has become very popular as a dietary supplement and recreational drug. Acute overdose leads to profound alteration of mental status and variable amounts of respiratory depression. With proper management, most patients recover fully within six hours. However, respiratory arrest and death have been reported in… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

- HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID ( GHB ) AND ITS CHEMICAL MODIFICATIONS : A REVIEW OF THE GHBergic SYSTEM

The aim of this review is to present the proved and some suggested mechanisms of its action from pharmacological point of view, which may help to properly treat intoxication or other pathological states caused by GHB ingestion.

GHB acid: A rage or reprive

The primary effects of GHB use are those of a CNS depressant and therefore range from relaxation, to euphoria, confusion, amnesia, hallucinations, and coma, and the drug has an addictive potential if used for long term.

γ-Hydroxybutyric Acid: Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Toxicology

This review will provide current information of the pharmacology, therapeutic effects, and pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of GHB, as well as therapeutic strategies for the treatment of overdoses.

Gamma-Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB) Withdrawal: A Case Report

Treatment of a GHB case, which was unsuccessfully treated initially with benzodiazepines, then successfully treated with adjuvant atypical neuroleptics, is described, and a possible neurochemical explanation for why such agents may be theoretically more effective in treating GHB withdrawal is offered.

Renal Clearance of γ-Hydroxybutyric Acid in Rats: Increasing Renal Elimination as a Detoxification Strategy

The results indicated that the renal clearance of GHB is dose-dependent, involving capacity-limited reabsorption, and monocarboxylate transport inhibitors, osmotic diuresis using d-mannitol, or the administration of sodium bicarbonate can increase the renal and total clearances ofGHB.

Gamma-butyrolactone and 1,4-butanediol: abused analogues of gamma-hydroxybutyrate.

The history of GHB analogue abuse as well as the clinical presentation and management of acute intoxication and withdrawal associated with abuse of these compounds are examined.

γ‐Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in Humans

Abstract:  Despite γ‐hydroxybutyrate (GHB) therapeutic uses and the increasing concern about its toxicity, few studies have addressed GHB dose‐related effects under controlled administration and

γ-Butyrolactone and 1,4-Butanediol

A review examines the history of GHB analogue abuse as well as the clinical presentation and management of acute intoxication and withdrawal associated with abuse of these compounds.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 128 REFERENCES

Toxic ingestion of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid.

Patients who ingest excessive GHB have a markedly altered level of consciousness, as did the patient in this illustrative case, and Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid overdose should be considered in any patient with altered mental status and a history of recreational drug abuse.

Pediatric gamma hydroxybutyrate intoxication.

GHB-toxic children appear similar to adults who have this poisoning and health care providers should be aware of GHB's clandestine production and its increasing presence on the streets and in the home.

Gamma Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and Gamma Butyrolactone (GBL) Withdrawal: Five Case Studies

It is concluded that patients with GHB or GBL withdrawal may present with agitated psychosis, delirium, and autonomic instability and relapse to GHB and GBL use occurred soon after treatment of withdrawal.

A case of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid withdrawal syndrome during alcohol addiction treatment: utility of diazepam administration.

The present experience indicates that administration of benzodiazepines would seem to be sufficient to achieve total regression of the withdrawal syndrome in a short time, at least if recognized early.

Gamma-hydroxybutyrate: an emerging drug of abuse that causes physical dependence.

The neuropharmacology, potential therapeutic uses and acute adverse effects of GHB are reviewed, followed by a case series of eight people using GHB.

Fatality due to gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and heroin intoxication.

The first case of fatal intoxication due to ingestion of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and intravenous use of heroin is reported and the presumed mechanism of action and pharmacokinetics of GHB are briefly reviewed.

A tale of novel intoxication: a review of the effects of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid with recommendations for management.

gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is unfamiliar to many physicians in the United States but enjoys clinical use elsewhere for applications in resuscitation, anesthesia, and addiction therapy. Use

Severe gamma-hydroxybutyrate withdrawal: a case report and literature review.

Pharmacokinetics of gammahydroxybutyrate (GHB) in narcoleptic patients.

The data confirm that GHB treatment decreases daytime sleepiness and episodes of cataplexy, sleep paralysis, and hypnagogic hallucinations, and GHB elimination appears to be capacity-limited in some patients when administered at a fixed dose of 3 g twice nightly at a 4-hour interval.
...