Gall cleaning by the aphidHormaphis betulae

@article{Kurosu2006GallCB,
  title={Gall cleaning by the aphidHormaphis betulae},
  author={U. Kurosu and S. Aoki},
  journal={Journal of Ethology},
  year={2006},
  volume={9},
  pages={51-55}
}
Gall-cleaning behavior of the aphidHormaphis betulae is described. Honeydew is pushed out of the gall resembling toothpaste appearing out of a tube. Immatures of all instars were observed pushing out honeydew, although 88% of the laborers were 1st instar. No aphids attacked other insects placed in the gall. It is suggested that labor has evolved without accompanying defense behavior against predators in the tribe Hormaphidini. 
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