Galileo magnetometer measurements: a stronger case for a subsurface ocean at Europa.

@article{Kivelson2000GalileoMM,
  title={Galileo magnetometer measurements: a stronger case for a subsurface ocean at Europa.},
  author={Margaret G. Kivelson and Krishan K. Khurana and Christopher T. Russell and Martin Volwerk and Raymond J. Walker and Christophe Zimmer},
  journal={Science},
  year={2000},
  volume={289 5483},
  pages={
          1340-3
        }
}
On 3 January 2000, the Galileo spacecraft passed close to Europa when it was located far south of Jupiter's magnetic equator in a region where the radial component of the magnetospheric magnetic field points inward toward Jupiter. This pass with a previously unexamined orientation of the external forcing field distinguished between an induced and a permanent magnetic dipole moment model of Europa's internal field. The Galileo magnetometer measured changes in the magnetic field predicted if a… 
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Seeking Europa's Ocean
  • R. Pappalardo
  • Physics, Geology
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union
  • 2010
Abstract Galileo spacecraft data suggest that a global ocean exists beneath the frozen ice surface Jupiter's moon Europa. Since the early 1970s, planetary scientists have used theoretical and
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