Galileo magnetometer measurements: a stronger case for a subsurface ocean at Europa.

  title={Galileo magnetometer measurements: a stronger case for a subsurface ocean at Europa.},
  author={Margaret G. Kivelson and Krishan K. Khurana and Christopher T. Russell and Martin Volwerk and Raymond J. Walker and Christophe Zimmer},
  volume={289 5483},
On 3 January 2000, the Galileo spacecraft passed close to Europa when it was located far south of Jupiter's magnetic equator in a region where the radial component of the magnetospheric magnetic field points inward toward Jupiter. This pass with a previously unexamined orientation of the external forcing field distinguished between an induced and a permanent magnetic dipole moment model of Europa's internal field. The Galileo magnetometer measured changes in the magnetic field predicted if a… 
Magnetic Signatures of a Plume at Europa During the Galileo E26 Flyby
We analyze the magnetic field perturbations observed near Jupiter's icy moon Europa by the Galileo spacecraft during the E26 flyby on 3 January 2000. In addition to the expected large‐scale
Subsurface Oceans on Europa and Callisto: Constraints from Galileo Magnetometer Observations
Magnetic field perturbations measured during Galileo flybys of Europa and Callisto are consistent with dipole fields induced by the temporal variations of the ambient jovian magnetospheric field.
Evidence of a plume on Europa from Galileo magnetic and plasma wave signatures
The icy surface of Jupiter’s moon, Europa, is thought to lie on top of a global ocean1–4. Signatures in some Hubble Space Telescope images have been associated with putative water plumes rising above
Magnetospheric Ion Bombardment of Europa’s Surface
Jupiter’s moon Europa is exposed to constant bombardment by magnetospheric charged particles, which are expected to be a major source of physical and chemical surface modification. Here we have
Magnetized or unmagnetized: Ambiguity persists following Galileo's encounters with Io in 1999 and 2000
Magnetometer data from Galileo's close encounters with Io on October 11, 1999, and February 22, 2000, do not establish clearly either the existence or absence of an internal magnetic moment because
Magnetospheric interactions with satellites
The Galilean moons of Jupiter, Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto are embedded within the magnetospheric plasma that approximately corotates with Jupiter that is, the plasma circles the planet at
21 Magnetospheric Interactions with Satellites
The Galilean moons of Jupiter, Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto are embedded within the magnetospheric plasma that approximately corotates with Jupiter that is, the plasma circles the planet at
Limits on an intrinsic dipole moment in Europa
[1] Galileo magnetometer data acquired on four passes by Europa have been used to investigate whether a fixed permanent dipole moment is present in the interior of the moon in addition to the induced
Seeking Europa's Ocean
  • R. Pappalardo
  • Physics, Geology
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union
  • 2010
Abstract Galileo spacecraft data suggest that a global ocean exists beneath the frozen ice surface Jupiter's moon Europa. Since the early 1970s, planetary scientists have used theoretical and


Europa's magnetic signature: report from Galileo's pass on 19 December 1996.
Although the data can be modeled as contributions of an internal field of Europa, they do not confirm its existence and the dipole orientation is also oblique to the imposed field of Jupiter and thus not directly produced as a response to that field.
Induced magnetic fields as evidence for subsurface oceans in Europa and Callisto
P perturbations of the external magnetic fields (associated with Jupiter's inner magnetosphere) in the vicinity of both Europa and Callisto are reported, and it is argued that these conducting layers may best be explained by the presence of salty liquid-water oceans.
Europa and Callisto: Induced or intrinsic fields in a periodically varying plasma environment
Magnetometer data from four Galileo passes by the Jovian moon Europa and three passes by Callisto are used to interpret the properties of the plasma surrounding these moons and to identify internal
The sub-Alfvénic interaction of the Galilean satellites with the Jovian magnetosphere
Recent observations by the Galileo spacecraft and Earth-based techniques have motivated us to reconsider the sub-Alfvenic interaction between the Galilean satellites of Jupiter and the magnetosphere.
The ionosphere of Europa from Galileo radio occultations.
The Galileo spacecraft performed six radio occultation observations of Jupiter's Galilean satellite Europa during its tour of the jovian system, revealing the presence of a tenuous ionosphere on Europa.
Interaction of the Jovian magnetosphere with Europa: Constraints on the neutral atmosphere
A three-dimensional plasma model was developed to understand the sources and sinks that maintain Europa's neutral atmosphere and to study the interaction of the Jovian magnetosphere with this
Formation of cycloidal features on Europa.
For this model to work, the tensile strength of Europa's ice crust must be less than 40 kilopascals, and there must be a thick fluid layer below the ice to allow sufficient tidal amplitude.
Alfvén wings and electromagnetic induction in the interiors: Europa and Callisto
The recent evidence for the importance of magnetic fields due to electromagnetic induction in the conducting interiors of the satellites Europa and Callisto has motivated this extension of the Alfven
Io and its plasma environment
The interaction of Io with its plasma torus and the Jovian magnetic field is described and examined in the context of several currently popular models. Three specific matters are addressed. First,