Galaxy Zoo:CANDELS barred discs and bar fractions

  title={Galaxy Zoo:CANDELS barred discs and bar fractions},
  author={Brooke D. Simmons and Thomas R. O. Melvin and Chris J. Lintott and Karen L. Masters and Kyle W. Willett and William C. Keel and Rebecca J Smethurst and Edmond Cheung and Robert C. Nichol and Kevin Schawinski and Michael J. Rutkowski and Jeyhan S. Kartaltepe and Eric F. Bell and Kevin Casteels and Christopher J. Conselice and Omar Almaini and Henry C. Ferguson and Lucy Fortson and William G. Hartley and Dale D. Kocevski and Anton M. Koekemoer and D. H. Mcintosh and Alice Mortlock and Jeffrey A. Newman and Jamie R. Ownsworth and Steven Bamford and Tomas Dahl{\'e}n and S. M. Faber and Steven L. Finkelstein and Adriano Fontana and Audrey Galametz and Norman A. Grogin and Ruth Grutzbauch and Yicheng Guo and Boris Haussler and Kian J. Jek and Sugata Kaviraj and Ray A. Lucas and Michael Andrew Peth and Mara Salvato and Tommy Wiklind and Stijn Wuyts},
  journal={Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society},
The formation of bars in disk galaxies is a tracer of the dynamical maturity of thepopulation. Previous studies have found that the incidence of bars in disks decreasesfrom the local Universe to z ∼ 1, and by z > 1 simulations predict that bar featuresin dynamically mature disks should be extremely rare. Here we report the discoveryof strong barred structures in massive disk galaxies at z ∼ 1.5 in deep rest-frameoptical images from CANDELS. From within a sample of 876 disk galaxies identifiedby… 

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