Physiology, signaling, and pharmacology of galanin peptides and receptors: three decades of emerging diversity.
The rapid increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity is becoming an important health problem. Overweight and obesity may cause several metabolic complications, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, high cholesterol, coronary artery disease as well as hypertension. Prevention and treatment of obesity will benefit the treatment of these related diseases. Current strategies for treatment of obesity are not adequately effective and are frequently companied with many side effects. Thus, new ways to treat obesity are urgently needed. Galanin is undoubtedly involved in the regulation of food intake and body weight. The aim of this review is to provide up-to-date knowledge concerning the roles of central and peripheral galanin as well as its receptors in the regulation of metabolism, obesity and appetite. We also highlight the mechanisms of galanin and its receptors in experimental obesity, trying to establish a novel anti-obesity strategy.