Gait modifications to change lower extremity gait biomechanics in runners: a systematic review

  title={Gait modifications to change lower extremity gait biomechanics in runners: a systematic review},
  author={Christopher Napier and Christopher K. Cochrane and Jack E. Taunton and Michael A. Hunt},
  journal={British Journal of Sports Medicine},
  pages={1382 - 1388}
Background Abnormal biomechanics have been cited as a potential risk factor for running-related injury. Many modifiable biomechanical risk factors have also been proposed in the literature as interventions via gait retraining. Aim To determine which interventions have successfully modified biomechanical variables linked to running-related injury. Study design Systematic literature review. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, SportDiscus and PSYCINFO were searched using key terms related to running… 

Clinical Application of Gait Retraining in the Injured Runner

This literature suggests that gait retraining could be applied to the treatment of other injuries in runners, although there is limited evidence to support this specific to other running-related injuries.

Effects of Foot Strike Techniques on Running Biomechanics: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Running with RFS imposed higher biomechanical loads on overall ground impact and knee and patellofemoral joints, whereas FFS imposedHigher biomechanicals loads on the ankle joint and Achilles tendon.

Gait-training devices in the treatment of lower extremity injuries in sports medicine: current status and future prospects

Although there are commonalities among gait-training interventions for chronic pathologies, more uniform approaches and clinical predictor rules would help identify the most appropriate interventions.

Running biomechanics before and after Pose® method gait retraining in distance runners

Runners may consider other gait retraining programs for impact loading reduction and injury-related biomechanical markers (e.g., VALR and VILR) and the trunk kinematics remained similar after training.

Use of double leg injury screening to assess single leg biomechanical risk variables.

Gait Retraining Improves Running Impact Loading and Function in Previously Injured U.S. Military Cadets: A Pilot Study.

Gait retraining was provided utilizing verbal, visual, and audio feedback to facilitate a change in running foot strike pattern from RFS to non-rearfoot strike (NRFS) and increase preferred running step rate.

Spatiotemporal and Ground-Reaction Force Characteristics as Risk Factors for Running-Related Injury: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Trial Including 800+ Recreational Runners

Contrary to widespread beliefs, vertical impact peak, loading rate, and step rate were not injury risk factors in recreational runners, especially for softer shoe use.



The effect of real-time gait retraining on hip kinematics, pain and function in subjects with patellofemoral pain syndrome

Gait retraining in individuals with PFPS resulted in a significant improvement of hip mechanics that was associated with a reduction in pain and improvements in function, which suggest that interventions for PFPS should focus on addressing the underlying mechanics associated with this injury.

Influence of Stride Frequency and Length on Running Mechanics

An increased stride rate (reduced stride length) appears to reduce the magnitude of several key biomechanical factors associated with running injuries.

Biomechanical factors associated with tibial stress fracture in female runners.

Data indicate that a history of TSF in runners is associated with increases in dynamic loading-related variables and the magnitude of tibial shock predicted group membership successfully in 70% of cases.

Evaluation of lower extremity overuse injury potential in runners.

The results suggest that runners who have developed stride patterns that incorporate relatively low levels of impact forces, and a moderately rapid rate of pronation are at a reduced risk of incurring overuse running injuries.

A review of anthropometric, biomechanical, neuromuscular and training related factors associated with injury in runners : review article

A current review of the literature concerning the epidemiology and risk factors for injuries in runners finds that Variables related to excessive rear-foot eversion and pronation are frequently sited in combination with the incidence of specific injuries; however, the role of impact characteristics remains in debate.

Etiologic factors associated with patellofemoral pain in runners.

The results suggest that Q angle is a strong discriminator between runners afflicted with PFP and non-injured runners.

Foot pronation is not associated with increased injury risk in novice runners wearing a neutral shoe: a 1-year prospective cohort study

The results of the present study contradict the widespread belief that moderate foot pronation is associated with an increased risk of injury among novice runners taking up running in a neutral running shoe and reveal that pronators had a significantly lower number of injuries than neutrals.

Impact reduction during running: efficiency of simple acute interventions in recreational runners

The acute attenuation of foot–ground impact seems to be mostly related to the use of a midfoot strike pattern and to a higher pre-activation of the gastrocnemius lateralis.

Effects of foot strike on low back posture, shock attenuation, and comfort in running.

Whether a change from RFS to FFS would change lumbar lordosis, influence shock attenuation, or change comfort levels in healthy recreational/experienced runners is determined.