Gait and the energetics of locomotion in horses

  title={Gait and the energetics of locomotion in horses},
  author={Donald F. Hoyt and C. Richard Taylor},
It seems reasonable that quadrupeds should change gait from a walk to a trot to a gallop in such a way as to minimize their energy consumption, as human beings are known1 to change from a walk to a run at a particular speed (2.4 m s−1) below which walking requires less energy than running and above which the opposite is true. Thus by changing gait, human beings keep the energy cost of locomotion to a minimum as their speed increases. One reason this relation holds is that in humans, metabolic… Expand
Gait selection in the ostrich: mechanical and metabolic characteristics of walking and running with and without an aerial phase
It is revealed here that the selection of walking or grounded running at intermediate speeds also favours a reduction in the metabolic cost of locomotion, and data suggest a continuum between grounded and aerial running, indicating that they belong to the same locomotor paradigm. Expand
Gait-specific energetics contributes to economical walking and running in emus and ostriches
Testing whether large bipedal ratite birds (emus and ostriches) have gait-specific energetics during walking and running similar to those found in humans found that during locomotion, emus showed a curvilinear relationship between Ėmet and speed during walking, and both emus and Ostriches demonstrated an abrupt change in the slope ofĖmet versus speed at the gait transition with a linear increase during running. Expand
The musculoskeletal system of humans is not tuned to maximize the economy of locomotion
The results of this study indicate that humans are clearly highly specialized for terrestrial locomotion compared with other great apes and their locomotor muscles are not tuned to specific walking or running speeds and, therefore, do not maximize the economy of locomotion. Expand
Metabolically Optimal Gait Transitions in Cross-Country Skiing
With increasing speeds of locomotion, animals change their gait pattern to minimize metabolic cost. For example, a horse will walk at low speeds, trot at intermediate speeds and gallop at high speedsExpand
Optimal speeds for walking and running, and walking on a moving walkway.
The notion that there is no energy-optimal speed for running is critiques, and the problem of predicting the speeds at which people walk on moving walkways--such as those found in some airports--is considered. Expand
The energetics and cardiorespiratory correlates of mammalian terrestrial locomotion.
  • R. Baudinette
  • Biology, Medicine
  • The Journal of experimental biology
  • 1991
Energy costs of locomotion in mammals can be predicted from running speed and body mass, with the minimum cost decreasing regularly with increasing mass (Mb-0.30). The predictive value of this modelExpand
What are the relations between mechanics, gait parameters, and energetics in terrestrial locomotion?
In horses and humans, there is a discontinuity at the walk-trot (run) transition and data for other species do not permit generalization, but in birds and quadrupeds there are conflicting reports. Expand
Gait pattern and energetic cost in hexapods
  • J. Nishi
  • Computer Science
  • Proceedings of the 20th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Vol.20 Biomedical Engineering Towards the Year 2000 and Beyond (Cat. No.98CH36286)
  • 1998
It is shown that crucial characteristics in locomotor patterns of legged animals are the result of optimization based on energetic efficiency, such as the phase transition between typical gait patterns, the constancy of metabolic cost to move unit distance, and so on. Expand
The biomechanics of skipping gaits: a third locomotion paradigm?
  • A. Minetti
  • Engineering, Medicine
  • Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
  • 1998
The simultaneous use of pendulum–like and elastic mechanisms in skipping gaits, as shown by the energy curve analysis, helps to understand the low cost of transport of galloping quadrupeds. Expand
From Simple to Complex Models : Gaits as Oscillations
In nature, humans and animals move in ways that allow them to achieve energetically economical motion over a large range of velocities. In particular, researchers have shown that legged animals useExpand


On the running of the gnu (Connochaetes taurinus) and other animals
Only three gaits should be recognized, the walk, trot and canter, and that they should be distinguished on the basis of the symmetry or otherwise of the stepping pattern, the range of N over which the gait can be used, and the nature of the energy transformations which occur at each step. Expand
Oxygen uptake and pulse rate while running with undetermined and determined stride lengths at different speeds.
  • H. Knuttgen
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • Acta physiologica Scandinavica
  • 1961
The results indicate that kinetic energy is the predominant factor in running (a nearly rectilinear relationship was obtained between oxygen uptake and velocity to the second power) and the increase in pulse rate was nearly rectILinearly related to that of oxygen uptake. Expand