Epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) mutations are associated with several human disorders, underscoring the importance of these channels in human health. Recent human genome sequencing projects have revealed a large number of ENaC gene variations, several of which have been found in individuals with salt-sensitive hypertension, cystic fibrosis, and other disorders. However, the functional consequences of most variants are unknown. In this study, we used the Xenopus oocyte expression system to examine the functional properties of a human ENaC variant. Oocytes expressing αβγL511Q human ENaCs showed 4.6-fold greater amiloride-sensitive currents than cells expressing wild-type channels. The γL511Q variant did not significantly alter channel surface expression. Single channel recordings revealed that the variant had fourfold higher open probability than wild type. In addition, γL511Q largely eliminated the Na(+) self-inhibition response, which reflects a downregulation of ENaC open probability by extracellular Na(+). Moreover, γL511Q diminished chymotrypsin-induced activation of the mutant channel. We conclude that γL511Q is a gain-of-function human ENaC variant. Our results suggest that γL511Q enhances ENaC activity by increasing channel open probability and dampens channel regulation by extracellular Na(+) and proteases.