GLOBALIZATION AND GOALS: Does soccer show the way?

  title={GLOBALIZATION AND GOALS: Does soccer show the way?},
  author={Branko Milnaovic},
  journal={Labor and Demography},
Soccer (football in the non-American terminology) is the most globalized sport. Free circulation of players has markedly increased during the last ten to fifteen years as limits on the number of foreign players in the European leagues have been lifted, and clubs have become more commercially-minded. On the other hand, the rules governing national team competition have remained restrictive: players can play only for the country where they were born. We show that, in a model where there is free… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

International hostility and aggressiveness on the soccer pitch: Evidence from European Championships and World Cups for the period 2000–2012
Some researchers consider soccer matches as the stylization of a war in other battlefields. Such an approach has largely been used to interpret the violent phenomena related to the soccer
The impact of the Bosman ruling on the market for native soccer players
This paper examines whether the Bosman ruling plays an important role in the market for native soccer players. Through the abolition of transfer fees after the expiration of contracts, as well as the
Consequences of the limit on foreign players in Russian football
This paper examines how a limit on foreign players has influenced national football in Russia. For this purpose, the effects on competition in the league, number of new young players in the national
Talent Development and Labour Market Integration: The Case of EU Football
We analyse how the Bosman ruling changed the incentives for football clubs in the European Union (EU) to develop talents. We show that the stiffer bidding competition over star players after the
The Political Economy of Football: Democracy, Income Inequality, and Men’s National Football Rankings
The question as to why certain countries outperform others in international football games warrants exploration. Herein, we argue that the synergy of economic development, democratic experience,
Correlation analysis between soccer game world ranking and player league distribution
Nowadays professional soccer player trading between clubs/leagues is very common. Soccer players could be employed in foreign clubs/leagues, but when international competitive events come, the elite
International Soccer Success and National Institutions
A growing literature has examined the causes of success in international soccer. We build on this literature by constructing a model of international success, as measured by the number of
The Effects of the Bosman Ruling on National and Club Teams in Europe
The Bosman ruling and its aftermath allowed soccer players to move more freely between clubs in Europe. This study examines the performance of national and club teams in Europe before and after Who Benefit from Globalization of Labor? Evidence from the “Bosman Ruling”∗
In 1995, the “Bosman Ruling” was made, resulting that restrictions on foreign players were widely relaxed for football clubs in the European Union (EU), and the football labor market in the EU has
Heterogeneity and Group Performance: Evaluating the Effect of Cultural Diversity in the World's Top Soccer League
It is found that more diverse teams outperform less diverse ones and structural equation modeling (SEM) reinforces these findings.


The world's game : a history of soccer
Known as much for the emotional outbursts and violence of its fans as for its own stars, soccer (or football, as it is known outside the United States) is a global game. Its international controlling
The Socio-Economic Determinants of International Soccer Performance
This paper reports regression results identifying the variables influencing a country's performance in international soccer games. The results reveal that economic, demographic, cultural and climatic
Why is Inequality Back on the Agenda
This paper investigates the reasons why inequality, and distribution more generally, have come to the fore in the development discourse at the tum of the century, after a period of relative neglect
It's Not Factor Accumulation: Stylized Facts and Growth Models
We document five stylized facts of economic growth. (1) The "residual" rather than factor accumulation accounts for most of the income and growth differences across nations. (2) Income diverges over
The O-Ring Theory of Economic Development
This paper proposes a production function describing processes subject to mistakes in any of several tasks. It shows that high-skill workers—those who make few mistakes—will be matched together in
Soccer’s Greedy Neo-colonialists
  • The Financial Times, December
  • 2003