Globalisation entails a rapid increase in economic, technological and cultural exchange, which flows from economically and technologically dominant nations to less dominant nations. Many of the underlying principles of globalisation are contradictory to traditional values. Globalisation could aggravate marginalisation of vulnerable communities in Africa. On the other hand globalisation is regarded to provide developing and under-developed nations an opportunity to escape from a cycle of under-development, poverty, inadequate access to health care, and ill health. Health care professionals could contribute towards optimising the benefits of globalisation towards enhancing health and development in their communities. This requires that they reconceptualise their roles and the nature of health sciences education programmes. The author discusses the main characteristics of globalisation, and its implications for developing countries and traditional lifestyles.