author={Enric Sala and Nancy Knowlton},
  journal={Annual Review of Environment and Resources},
  • E. SalaN. Knowlton
  • Published 13 October 2006
  • Environmental Science
  • Annual Review of Environment and Resources
■ Abstract Marine biodiversity encompasses all levels of complexity of life in the sea, from within species to across ecosystems. At all levels, marine biodiversity has naturally exhibited a general, slow trajectory of increase, punctuated by mass extinctions at the evolutionary scale and by disturbances at the ecological scale. In historical times, a synergy of human threats, including overfishing, global warming, biological 

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