GIB: Steps Toward an Expert-Level Bridge-Playing Program

@inproceedings{Ginsberg1999GIBST,
  title={GIB: Steps Toward an Expert-Level Bridge-Playing Program},
  author={Matthew L. Ginsberg},
  booktitle={IJCAI},
  year={1999}
}
This paper describes GIB, the first bridgeplaying program to approach the level of a human expert. ( G I B finished twelf th in a handpicked field of thir ty-four experts at an invitat ional event at the 1998 Wor ld Bridge Championships.) We give a basic overview of the algorithms used, describe their strengths and weaknesses, and present the results of experiments comparing GIB to both human opponents and other programs. 
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