author={Jeroen Darquennes and Peter Hans Nelde},
  journal={Annual Review of Applied Linguistics},
  pages={61 - 77}
This article explores the current state of German as a European lingua franca. It presents a brief history of German as a lingua franca from the late Middle Ages through the present. The presentation then addresses the number of speakers of German as a first, second, and foreign language and discusses the presence of the language in internationally influential domains such as international political and economic organizations. The chapter concludes with some notes on language perception… 
El alemán como lengua franca de la Unión Europea
Compared with English and French, German plays a minor role as an institutional lingua franca of the European Union. However, since the late eighties, the status of this language has gradually been
The German Language in Poland: the Eternal Foe and the Wars on Words
The aim of this chapter is to examine the current status of the German language in Poland and to envisage its future standing in the linguistic marketplace in this part of Europe. Some may wonder why
ELF and the EU/wider Europe
This chapter presents an overview of the present situation of English as a lingua franca (ELF) in the EU and the expanding European context. It views ELF as one of many strategies for solving
The omnipresence of English in Europe has led to numerous discussions about its widespread functions and special status compared to all other European languages. Yet, many of these discussions
English in Singapore
T his article discusses the various ways in which it is possible to theorise about the varieties of English in the world, in particular Kachru’s (1982) concentric circle model and Schneider’s (2007)
A Comparative Study on the UK’s and Germany’s Overseas Language Promotion: A Case Study of China
This paper mainly discusses and compares the general situation of the UK’s and Germany’s overseas language promotion, their promotion policies and institutions, and the promotion of English and
Language learning as a practice of self-formation
Abstract This article explores the motivation to learn German for learners already proficient in English as a second language. Discussed are parts of the findings of an empirical study investigating
Language Policy in Multilingual Workplaces:  Management, Practices and Beliefs in Banks in Luxembourg.
For decades the primary focus of language policy research has been activities by states and their agencies, while language policy activities in workplaces have attracted little attention. Addressing
English in Singapore: Modernity and Management
This book provides a detailed investigation into the state and status of English in Singapore. These are important barometers of how successful this dynamic society is in its attempt to stay relevant
Academic Attractiveness of Countries to Students Explaining and Measuring a Countries' Academic X Factor
Throughout history the epicentre of intellectual culture has always been dynamic. In modern history we see this trend continuing with the move from the scientific hegemony of Germany to the USA. In


Language choice in multilingual institutions: A case study at the European Commission with particular reference to the role of English, French, and German as working languages
The article first offers a framework for the analysis of institutional language choice which is then applied to the European Commission. It reviews efforts undertaken by some European governments to