author={F. Gary Stiles},
  journal={Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden},
  • F. G. Stiles
  • Published 1981
  • Environmental Science
  • Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden
The overall objective is to compare the ecological impact of bird-flower coevolution in different geographical areas. However, it is first necessary to define the parameters of such coevolution in broader terms than those of the traditional "syndrome of ornithophily," which focuses very narrowly on some aspects of floral morphology. I recognize three distinct components of flower function: attraction, reward, and filtering mechanisms, and discuss their functioning in an ecological context, and… 

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