• Corpus ID: 55165485


  author={Kenneth Blum and John Giordano and Siobhan A. Morse and Yi-yang Liu and J. O. A. Tan and Abdalla Bowirrat and Andrew Smolen and Roger L. Waite and Margaret A. Madigan and Mallory M Kerner and G Holistic and Weill Cornell},
There is a need to classify patients at genetic risk for drug seeking behavior prior to or upon entry to residential and or non-residential chemical dependency programs. We have determined based on a literature review, that there are seven risk alleles associated with six candidate genes that were studied in this patient population of recovering poly-drug abusers. To determine risk severity of these 26 patients we calculated the percentage of prevalence of the risk alleles and provided a… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Custom genotyping for substance addiction susceptibility genes in Jordanians of Arab descent

This study is the first to show a genetic link to substance addiction in a Jordanian population of Arab descent and may contribute to the understanding of drug addiction mechanisms in Middle Eastern populations and how to manage or dictate therapy for individuals.

Generational Association Studies of Dopaminergic Genes in Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) Subjects: Selecting Appropriate Phenotypes for Reward Dependence Behaviors

The results support the putative role of dopaminergic polymorphisms in RDS behaviors and shows the importance of a nonspecific RDS phenotype and informs an understanding of how evaluating single subset behaviors of RDS may lead to spurious results.

Sex-Dimorphic Interactions of MAOA Genotype and Child Maltreatment Predispose College Students to Polysubstance Use

The results indicate that PSU among college students is influenced by the interaction of MAOA and child maltreatment in a sex-specific fashion, and the highest number of substances were used by male students harboring low-activity MAOA alleles with a history of childhood emotional abuse.

Neuro-Genetics of Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) as the Root Cause of "Addiction Transfer": A New Phenomenon Common after Bariatric Surgery.

It is hypothesize here that RDS is the root cause of substituting food addiction for other dependencies and potentially explains this recently described Phenomenon (addiction transfer) common after bariatric surgery.

Using a Systems-Based Risk Score Approach to Examine Genetic Predisposition to Novelty Seeking

The results showed that higher hypodopaminergic genetic risk score positively predicted higher Novelty Seeking score, which provides a mechanism for incorporating genetic predisposition into theory-driven multivariate etiological models of psychological constructs such as personality and mental illness.

Genetic Addiction Risk Score (GARS): Testing For Polygenetic Predisposition and Risk to Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS)

This research presents a novel and scalable approach to personalized medicine that addresses the underlying cause of relapse in patients with a history of substance abuse and indicates its potential in finding treatments and relapse prevention.

Association of genetic polymorphisms of glutamate decarboxylase 2 and the dopamine D2 receptor with obesity in Taiwanese subjects

The study demonstrated a statistically significant difference in the frequency of the GAD2 (+83987 T/A) and DRD2 (S311C) genes between cases and controls in Taiwanese subjects.

Overcoming qEEG Abnormalities and Reward Gene Deficits during Protracted Abstinence in Male Psychostimulant and Polydrug Abusers Utilizing Putative Dopamine D2 Agonist Therapy: Part 2

This seminal work is proposing that with necessary large populations supporting these initial results, and possibly even additional candidate genes and single nucleotide polymorphisms, the authors may eventually have the clinical ability to classify severity according to genotype and possession of risk alleles, along with offering a safe, nonaddicting, natural dopaminergic receptor agonist.

Early Intervention of Intravenous KB220IV- Neuroadaptagen Amino-Acid Therapy (NAAT)™ Improves Behavioral Outcomes in a Residential Addiction Treatment Program: A Pilot Study

A pilot experiment found a significant reduction of chronic symptoms, measured by the Chronic Abstinence Symptom Severity (CASS) Scale, in the combined group (IV and oral) did significantly better than the oral-only group over the first week and 30-day follow-up period.

Neurogenetics and Nutrigenomics of Neuro-Nutrient Therapy for Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS): Clinical Ramifications as a Function of Molecular Neurobiological Mechanisms.

This is a review, with some illustrative case histories from a number of addiction professionals, of certain molecular neurobiological mechanisms which if ignored may lead to clinical complications.



Genetic, personality, and environmental predictors of drug use in adolescents.

An expanded evaluation of the relationship of four alleles to the level of response to alcohol and the alcoholism risk.

Support is found for a relationship between the HTTLPR L and GABAAalpha6 Ser385 alleles to low alcohol LR and to alcoholism in a prospectively studied cohort evaluated for LR in young adulthood and before the onset of alcohol dependence.

A dopamine transporter gene functional variant associated with cocaine abuse in a Brazilian sample.

A robust association between cocaine dependence and a VNTR allele in SLC6A3 is demonstrated, conferring a small but detectable effect, and it is shown that this VN TR may be functional.

High-activity catechol-O-methyltransferase allele is more prevalent in polysubstance abusers.

Individuals with the high-activity COMT variant may have greater genetic vulnerability to drug abuse, as compared with control research volunteers reporting insignificant lifetime use of addictive substances.

Differential role of serotonergic polymorphisms in alcohol and heroin dependence

Increased prevalence of the Taq I A1 allele of the dopamine receptor gene (DRD2) in obesity with comorbid substance use disorder: a preliminary report.

The preliminary data suggest that the presence of the DRD2 A1 allele confirms increased risk not only for obesity, but also for other related addictive behaviours (previously referred to as the Reward Deficiency Syndrome) and that a BMI over 25 by itself (without characterization of macroselection or comorbid substance use disorders) is not a sufficient criterion for association with the DRd2 A 1 allele.

Association of the dopamine D2 receptor gene with alcohol dependence: haplotypes and subgroups of alcoholics as key factors for understanding receptor function

The hypothesis that haplotypes, which are supposed to induce a low DRD2 expression, are associated with alcohol dependence was confirmed and supposedly high-expressing haplotype weakened or neutralized the action of low-expressed haplotypes.

Dopamine D2 receptor genotype is associated with increased mortality at a 10-year follow-up of alcohol-dependent individuals.

The TAQ I A1 allele of the DRD 2 gene (or DRD2 gene region) was associated with increased mortality over a 10-year period in alcohol-dependent individuals.