author={Giuseppe Traversa and Alexander M. Walker and Francesca Menniti Ippolito and Bruno Caffari and Lucio Capurso and Angelo Dezi and Maurizio Koch and Marina Maggini and Stefania Spila Alegiani and Roberto Raschetti},
Although the etiologic relation between nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) use and gastrointestinal lesions is well documented, newly introduced NSAIDs deserve a fresh examination for their risk/benefit ratio. To estimate the association between consumption of ketorolac and the occurrence of gastroduodenal lesions, we conducted a case-control study. The study population comprised 600 outpatients with a confirmed endoscopic diagnosis of ulcer and erosion in 1991 and 1992 and 6,000… 
Ketorolac use in outpatients and gastrointestinal hospitalization: a comparison with other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in Italy
The study demonstrates the need to adhere to the restrictions relating to the indications and duration of use of ketorolac and represents a greater public health concern since it is confirmed to be among the most gastrotoxic NSAIDs and is one of the most commonly prescribed NSAIDs in Italy.
Risk of uncomplicated peptic ulcer among users of aspirin and nonaspirin nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs.
The risk of symptomatic ulcer for aspirin and nonaspirin NSAIDs was elevated throughout treatment, suggesting that NSAIDs might not only complicate but also originate clinically relevant peptic ulcers.
A metaanalysis of severe upper gastrointestinal complications of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs.
These data support an association between the use of NSAID and serious upper GI complications, including estimates from different study designs, which must be viewed with caution.
Association between nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding/perforation: an overview of epidemiologic studies published in the 1990s.
The elderly and patients with a history of peptic ulcer could benefit the most from a reduction in NSAID gastrotoxicity, especially in the subgroup of patients with the greatest background risk.
Risk of hospitalization for upper gastrointestinal bleeding associated with ketorolac, other NSAIDs, calcium antagonists and other antihypertensive drugs
The large excess risk of major upper gastrointestinal complications associated with outpatient use of ketorolac suggests an unfavourable risk/benefitevaluation compared to other NSAIDs.
Risk of hospitalization for upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding associated with ketorolac, other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, calcium antagonists, and other antihypertensive drugs.
The excess risk of major upper gastrointestinal tract complications associated with outpatient use of ketorolac suggests an unfavorable risk-benefit assessment compared with other NSAIDs.
Nonselective Nonaspirin Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and Gastrointestinal Bleeding: Relative and Absolute Risk Estimates From Recent Epidemiologic Studies
GIB risk declines following cessation of NNANSAID use, with current rather than prior cumulative exposure the key determinant of risk.
Utilisation Pattern of Nonspecific Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and COX-2 Inhibitors in a Local Health Service Unit in Northeast Italy
Analysis of an administrative database in Italy showed a trend suggesting that COXIBs are prescribed to an older population and for a longer period of time than NS-NSAIDs, and that their use is less frequently associated with GPAs.
A Case of Unexplained Duodenal Ulcer and Massive Gastrointestinal Bleed.
Antacid (A02A) and antiulcer (A02B) drug prescription patterns: Predicting factors, dosage and treatment duration
Prolonged treatment is common for acid suppression in peptic ulcer drugs patients in the absence of a clear diagnosis, and this observation supports the need for appropiate diagnostic and prescription protocols to secure increased economical savings and management results.


Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and increased risk for peptic ulcer disease in elderly persons.
The data support other findings indicating that a clinically significant risk for serious ulcer disease is associated with the use of nonaspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and that use of these drugs may be responsible for a large proportion of peptic ulcers among elderly persons.
The impact of research quality and study design on epidemiologic estimates of the effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on upper gastrointestinal tract disease.
A meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies of upper gastrointestinal tract disease related to NSAIDs found the design and quality of the studies appear to be strong independent predictors of the risk estimate.
Antipsychotic drug prescription in general practice in Italy
Although the principal indications for neuroleptics are subacute or chronic clinical conditions, a surprisingly high proportion of subjects (ranging from 48% to 76% depending on the type of neuroleptic) received only one single prescription during 1989.