GABAA receptor channels.

  title={GABAA receptor channels.},
  author={Robert L. Macdonald and Richard W. Olsen},
  journal={Annual review of neuroscience},
This chapter discusses the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor channels, which are the most abundant inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS. Following release from presynaptic vesicles, GABA exerts fast inhibitory effects by interacting with GABA receptors, whose primary function is to hyperpolarize neuronal membranes in mature CNS neurons. GABA receptors are found both presynaptically, where they decrease the likelihood of neurotransmitter release, and postsynaptically, where they decrease… 
GABAA receptor chloride ion channels
GABAR appear to be modulated by several classes of CNS depressants, including benzodiazepines (BZ), barbiturates, neuroactive steroids, other general anesthetics including intravenous and volatile agents, and possibly ethanol.
The pharmacology of these novel subtypes of GABA receptors are expected to mediate the lateral inhibition of light responses and have been shown to inhibit transmitter release at bipolar cell terminals and may yield important therapeutic agents.
Molecular Organization of the Postsynaptic Membrane at Inhibitory Synapses
The majority of fast inhibitory neurotransmission in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) is mediated by γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAA receptors), whereas in the brain stem and
General Anesthetic Effects on GABAA Receptors
Cells of the brain communicate with each other using a wide variety of chemical neurotransmitters, and general anesthetics have been found to act via both depression of excitatory and enhancement of inhibitory ionotropic receptors.
From GABAA receptor diversity emerges a unified vision of GABAergic inhibition.
  • E. Costa
  • Biology
    Annual review of pharmacology and toxicology
  • 1998
GAB potency variability, which emerges from GABAA receptor diversity, plays a unifying role in the intrinsic functional mechanism of laminated structures, which is a mechanism operative in neuronal circuit adaptation to the extreme amplification of GABA-gated Cl- current intensities.
Presynaptic GABAA receptors in vertebrate synapses.
It is likely that the GABAA receptors act as a site for 'presynaptic facilitation' of transmitter release in the CNS.
Extrasynaptic GABAA Receptors: Form, Pharmacology, and Function
This mini-symposium review highlights ongoing work examining the properties of recombinant and native extrasynaptic GABAA receptors and their preferential targeting by endogenous and clinically relevant agents and identifies them as a major player in both physiological and pathophysiological processes.
Electrophysiology of ionotropic GABA receptors
The diversity of GABAA receptors widens the neuronal repertoire of responses to external signals and contributes to shaping the electrical activity of neurons and other cell types.


Functional domains of GABAA receptors.
Importance of a novel GABAA receptor subunit for benzodiazepine pharmacology
The isolation of a cloned cDNA encoding a new GABAA receptor subunit, termed γ2, which shares approximately 40% sequence identity with α-and β-subunits and whose messenger RNA is prominently localized in neuronal subpopulations throughout the CNS.
GABAA-receptor function in hippocampal cells is maintained by phosphorylation factors.
Gamma aminobutyric acid mediates fast synaptic inhibition in the central nervous system by activating the chloride-permeable GABAA channel, and this "run down" of the GABA-activated conductance can be prevented by the inclusion of magnesium adenosine triphosphate and calcium buffer in the intracellular medium.
Structural and functional basis for GABAA receptor heterogeneity
Two additional cDNAs encoding two additional GABAA receptor α-subunits are isolated, confirming the heterogeneous nature of the receptor/chloride channel complex and demonstrating the molecular basis for it.
From ion currents to genomic analysis: Recent advances in GABAA receptor research
The description of a receptor gene superfamily comprising the subunits of the GABAA, nicotinic acetylcholine, and glycine receptors has led to a new way of thinking about gene expression and receptor assembly in the nervous system.
Molecular biology of GABAA receptors
  • R. Olsen, A. Tobin
  • Biology, Chemistry
    FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
  • 1990
Subpopulations of GABAA receptors with different cellular and regional locations show differential sensitivity to GABA, to modulators like steroids, to physiological regulation, to disease processes, and to pharmacological manipulation by drugs such as benzodiazepines.
Assembly of GABAA receptor subunits: role of the delta subunit
  • N. Saxena, R. Macdonald
  • Biology
    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
  • 1994
GABAR isoforms containing the delta subunit constitute a novel GABAR channel with distinct electrophysiological and pharmacological characteristics, and the presence of the delta-subunit slowed the rate of acute desensitization of GABA-evoked current during GABA application and the rate, recovery, and differential sensitivity to block by zinc.