G Protein Pathways

  title={G Protein Pathways},
  author={Susana R. Neves and Prahlad T. Ram and Ravi Iyengar},
  pages={1636 - 1639}
The heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide–binding proteins (G proteins) are signal transducers that communicate signals from many hormones, neurotransmitters, chemokines, and autocrine and paracrine factors. The extracellular signals are received by members of a large superfamily of receptors with seven membrane-spanning regions that activate the G proteins, which route the signals to several distinct intracellular signaling pathways. These pathways interact with one another to form a network that… 

G Protein Signaling Components in Filamentous Fungal Genomes

In fungi, heterotrimeric G proteins regulate a number of critical developmental processes including growth, mating and pathogenesis, and two prominent output pathways are the cyclic adenosine monophosphate and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways.

Emerging non-canonical functions for heterotrimeric G proteins in cellular signaling

This review highlights some examples of recently identified interacting proteins and summarizes how they functionally connect heterotrimeric G proteins to previously underappreciated cellular roles.

7 Heterotrimeric G Proteins

The components of heterotrimeric G-protein-mediated signaling are introduced and the effector pathways downstream of the receptors are highlighted, which include, but are not limited to, nutrient sensing, mating and pheromone response, and pathogenesis.

Strike a pose: Gαq complexes at the membrane.

Signal Transduction Pathways Mediated by Heterotrimeric G Proteins

Changes in the environment are communicated to heterotrimeric G proteins through a class of plasma membrane proteins collectively known as G protein coupled receptors, or GPCRs, through the interaction of β and y sub-units.

Insights into G protein structure, function, and regulation.

An evolutionarily highly conserved group of molecules known as heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are key determinants of the specificity and temporal characteristics of many signaling processes and are the topic of this review.

G-Protein-Coupled Receptors, Cell Motility and Proliferation

The G protein-coupled receptor complex exists as a tightly associated complex that functions as a unit and, as well as -subunits, plays a very important role in the regulation of various effectors.

Single Transmembrane Spanning Heterotrimeric G Protein-Coupled Receptors and Their Signaling Cascades

  • T. Patel
  • Biology
    Pharmacological Reviews
  • 2004
The significance of the coupling of the single transmembrane spanning receptors to G proteins has been highlighted by providing several examples of the concept that signaling via these receptors may involve the activation of multiple signaling cascades.



Diversity of G proteins in signal transduction

The heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins acting as switches that regulate information processing circuits connecting cell surface receptors to a variety of effectors generate the pathways that modulate cellular responses to complex chemical signals.

The Many Faces of G Protein Signaling*

  • H. Hamm
  • Biology, Chemistry
    The Journal of Biological Chemistry
  • 1998
The recent resolution of crystal structures of heterotrimeric G proteins in inactive and active conformations provides a structural framework for understanding their role as conformational switches in signaling pathways.

Receptor-effector coupling by G proteins.

Rap1 signalling: adhering to new models

Ras-like GTPases are ubiquitously expressed, evolutionarily conserved molecular switches that couple extracellular signals to various cellular responses, ranging from modulation of growth and differentiation to secretion, integrin-mediated cell adhesion and morphogenesis.

The role of hormone receptors and GTP-regulatory proteins in membrane transduction

Cell membrane receptors for hormones and neurotransmitters form oligomeric complexes with GTP-regulatory proteins and inhibit the latter from reacting with G TP, and this theory may apply generally to membrane signal transduction involving surface receptors.

Roles of G protein subunits in transmembrane signalling

A family of proteins called G proteins couples cell surface receptors to a variety of enzymes and ion channels, and an important question is how signals remain specific as they cross the cell membrane.

PYK2 Links Gqα and G13α Signaling to NF-κB Activation*

  • C. ShiJ. Kehrl
  • Biology, Chemistry
    The Journal of Biological Chemistry
  • 2001
Results indicate that PYK2 can link G-protein activation through PI3K, Akt, and IκB kinase to NF-κB activation.

Mechanisms of Regulation of Phospholipase D1 and D2 by the Heterotrimeric G Proteins G13 and Gq *

Gα13 activation of rPLD1 in COS-7 cells is mediated by Rho, while Gαq activation requires PKC, further supporting a role for RhoA.