G Protein-Coupled Kinin Receptors and Immunity Against Pathogens.


For decades, immunologists have considered the complement system as a paradigm of a proteolytic cascade that, acting cooperatively with the immune system, enhances host defense against infectious organisms. In recent years, advances made in thrombosis research disclosed a functional link between activated neutrophils, monocytes, and platelet-driven thrombogenesis. Forging a physical barrier, the fibrin scaffolds generated by synergism between the extrinsic and intrinsic (contact) pathways of coagulation entrap microbes within microvessels, limiting the systemic spread of infection while enhancing the clearance of pathogens by activated leukocytes. Insight from mice models of thrombosis linked fibrin formation via the intrinsic pathway to the autoactivation of factor XII (FXII) by negatively charged "contact" substances, such as platelet-derived polyphosphates and DNA from neutrophil extracellular traps. Following cleavage by FXIIa, activated plasma kallikrein (PK) initiates inflammation by liberating the nonapeptide bradykinin (BK) from an internal domain of high molecular weight kininogen (HK). Acting as a paracrine mediator, BK induces vasodilation and increases microvascular permeability via activation of endothelial B2R, a constitutively expressed subtype of kinin receptor. During infection, neutrophil-driven extravasation of plasma fuels inflammation via extravascular activation of the kallikrein-kinin system (KKS). Whether liberated by plasma-borne PK, tissue kallikrein, and/or microbial-derived proteases, the short-lived kinins activate immature dendritic cells via B2R, thus linking the infection-associated innate immunity/inflammation to the adaptive arm of immunity. As inflammation persists, a GPI-linked carboxypeptidase M removes the C-terminal arginine from the primary kinin, converting the B2R agonist into a high-affinity ligand for B1R, a GPCR subtype that is transcriptionally upregulated in injured/inflamed tissues. As reviewed here, lessons taken from studies of kinin receptor function in experimental infections have shed light on the complex proteolytic circuits that, acting at the endothelial interface, reciprocally couple immunity to the proinflammatory KKS.

DOI: 10.1016/bs.ai.2017.05.007

Cite this paper

@article{Scharfstein2017GPK, title={G Protein-Coupled Kinin Receptors and Immunity Against Pathogens.}, author={Julio Scharfstein and Pablo I P Ramos and Manoel Barral-Netto}, journal={Advances in immunology}, year={2017}, volume={136}, pages={29-84} }