Fuzzy-Trace Theory and False Memory

  title={Fuzzy-Trace Theory and False Memory},
  author={Charles J. Brainerd and Valerie F. Reyna},
  journal={Current Directions in Psychological Science},
  pages={164 - 169}
  • C. Brainerd, V. Reyna
  • Published 1 October 2002
  • Psychology
  • Current Directions in Psychological Science
A key problem confronting theories of false memory is that false-memory phenomena are so diverse: Some are characteristic of controlled laboratory tasks, others of everyday life; some occur for traumatic events with legal consequences, others for innocuous events; some are characteristic of one developmental level, others of another developmental level. Fuzzy-trace theory explains false memories via a small set of principles that implement a single representational distinction. Those principles… Expand

Figures and Tables from this paper

False memories: Phenomena, theories, and implications.
In recent years, there has been an explosion of research on false memories: the subjective experience of remembering something if that something did apparently not happen in reality. We review aExpand
Fuzzy-trace theory and source monitoring
Fuzzy-trace theory and the source-monitoring framework are evaluated with respect to recent data on false memory. Lindsay and Johnson discuss key findings generated by fuzzy-trace theory from aExpand
Developmental reversals in false memory: a review of data and theory.
It is established that developmental improvements in the formation of meaning connections are necessary and sufficient to produce age increases in false memory. Expand
Dual process theory of reasoning and recognition memory errors: Individual differences in a memory prose task
It is observed that intuitive thinkers are more likely to produce false memories through the use of a DRM-like paradigm in a prose recognition memory task and Cognitive Reflection Test-related individual differences in producing false memories. Expand
Explaining the development of false memories
Abstract We review six explanatory dimensions of false memory in children that are relevant to forensic practice: measurement, development, social factors, individual differences, varieties ofExpand
Fuzzy-trace theory: dual processes in memory, reasoning, and cognitive neuroscience.
Fuzzy-trace theory's memory and reasoning principles have been applied in other research domains and produced some surprising predictions that have been verified: false reports do not merely decline with age during childhood but increase under theoretically specified conditions. Expand
False Memory in Children: Data, Theory, and Legal Implications
False memory is an area of intense research interest for both theoretical and practical reasons. From a theoretical perspective, false memories have been the subject of hot debates about the natureExpand
17 False Memory in Children : Data , Theory , and Legal Implications
False memory is an area of intense research interest for both theoretical and practical reasons. From a theoretical perspective, false memories have been the subject of hot debates about the natureExpand
A continuous source reinstatement model of true and illusory recollection
This work presents a new computational model of recollection based on the recognition through semantic synchronization model of Johns, Jones, & Mewhort (2012), and fuzzy trace theory (Brainerd & Reyna, 2002) that successfully explains multiple studies on both true and false recollection. Expand
The Malleability of Memory
In connecting us to the past, memories determine who we are. But we do not access that past, we construct it—and in doing so we construct ourselves. This chapter explores the fallibility of memoryExpand


Are Children's False Memories More Persistent than their True Memories?
Fuzzy-trace theory predicts that children's false-memory responses will be well preserved over time, and that under specific conditions, they will be less likely to be forgotten than true-memoryExpand
The cognitive neuroscience of constructive memory.
A general integrative framework that outlines the types of problems that the human memory system must solve in order to produce mainly accurate representations of past experience is first described. Expand
AreYoung children susceptible to the false-memory illusion?
False memories have typically been found to be more common during early childhood than during later childhood or adulthood. However, fuzzy-trace theory makes the counterintuitive prediction that someExpand
Toward a psychology of memory accuracy.
A correspondence metaphor of memory underlying accuracy-oriented research is outlined, and how the features of this metaphor are manifested across the disparate bodies of research reviewed here are shown. Expand
Mere memory testing creates false memories in children.
It has been reported that initial recall tests inoculate true memories against forgetting without creating false memories. This is not true of recognition tests. In 2 experiments with 5- andExpand
Theories of false memory in children and adults
Abstract Much attention has recently been paid to false-memory effects in children and adults. Attention initially focused on the effects themselves. Most observers now agree that false-memoryExpand
Fuzzy-trace theory: An interim synthesis
Abstract We review the current status of fuzzy-trace theory. The presentation is organized around five topics. First, theoretical ideas that immediately preceded the development of fuzzy-trace theoryExpand
Memory Illusions: Recalling, Recognizing, and Recollecting Events that Never Occurred
Three experiments that document a powerful false memory effect in recall and recognition are reported. Subjects studied lists of items related to critical nonpresented themes (e.g., sleep, needle)Expand
Source monitoring.
It is argued that source monitoring is based on qualities of experience resulting from combinations of perceptual and reflective processes, usually requires relatively differentiated phenomenal experience, and involves attributions varying in deliberateness. Expand
Children's Memory and Metaphorical Interpretation
Assumptions of constructivism, information-processing, and fuzzy-trace theory were tested in two experiments on memory and comprehension of metaphors with 6- and 9-year-old children. In the firstExpand