The proximal and middle phalanges from 83 proximal interphalangeal joints (PIPJs) were set in clear plastic and sectioned in the transverse plane leaving the heads whole. The sections were cleaned, shadowgraphed and measured. The medullary canals were marked on sagittal and frontal plane shadowgraphs of the intact bones and analysed. The information was then used in the design of a surface replacement prosthesis for the PIPJs. The main dorsal surface of the proximal phalanx (PP) was found to be angled to the longitudinal baseline of the bone by a mean of 5.19 degrees. This angle increased just proximal to the phalangeal head to a mean of 11.84 degrees. The mean ratio between these angles was 2.71. The phalangeal shaft bone was thicker laterally than dorsally and palmarly, and thicker dorsally than palmarly for the proximal and middle phalanges throughout the length of the bone. The shape and size of the transverse cross-section of the medullary canal changed throughout the length of the shaft. The centreline of the PP medullary canal coincided with the midline of the bone in the frontal plane and was approximately a straight line along the length of the canal. In the sagittal plane the centreline was slightly palmar to the midline and the angle between it and the longitudinal baseline of the bone changed along the length of the canal. In the region of the shaft just proximal to the PP head (where the stem of a surface replacement prosthesis would fit) the mean angle was 10.63 degrees. The centreline was offset dorsally from the centre of rotation of the PIPJ by a mean of 0.83 mm, 0.83 mm, 0.80 mm and 0.57 mm for the index, middle, ring and little fingers respectively, with an overall mean of 0.76 mm. The mean PP head heights (transverse plane) were 9.17 mm, 9.33 mm, 8.73 mm and 7.40 mm and the mean PP widths (transverse plane) were 12.86 mm, 13.25 mm, 12.75 mm and 10.54 mm for the index, middle, ring and little fingers respectively. The mean angle between the lateral sides of the condyles to the transverse baseline was 78.35 degrees and the mean distance from the centreline of the PP head (transverse plane) to the bases of the two condyles was 4.69 mm. The mean maximum depth of the PP head intercondylar sulcus in the frontal plane was 0.72 mm and in the transverse plane, the mean maximum depth of the intercondylar sulcus on the anterior face was 0.82 mm.