Further classification of skin alkaloids from neotropical poison frogs (Dendrobatidae), with a general survey of toxic/noxious substances in the amphibia.

@article{Daly1987FurtherCO,
  title={Further classification of skin alkaloids from neotropical poison frogs (Dendrobatidae), with a general survey of toxic/noxious substances in the amphibia.},
  author={John W. Daly and Charles W. Myers and Noel F. Whittaker},
  journal={Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology},
  year={1987},
  volume={25 10},
  pages={
          1023-95
        }
}
Cutaneous granular glands are a shared character of adult amphibians, including caecilians, and are thought to be the source of most biologically active compounds in amphibian skin. Data are available from one or more species in over 100 of nearly 400 genera comprising the three living orders of Amphibia. Many species contain unidentified substances judged to be noxious based on predator aversion or human taste. Additionally, there is a great diversity of known compounds, some highly toxic as… Expand
Biologically active substances from amphibians: preliminary studies on anurans from twenty-one genera of Thailand.
TLDR
Skins of 21 genera of anurans from Thailand have now been investigated for noxious secretions, toxic substances, and alkaloids, finding four generas of bufonid toads were toxic and two species of ranid frogs were toxic, perhaps due to the presence of toxic peptide(s). Expand
Chapter 3 Amphibian Alkaloids
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This chapter discusses that amphibians have elaborated an astonishing array of alkaloids, most of which are known only from the skin or skin glands of adult amphibians, which represent unique structural classes, while others occur in certain insects. Expand
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Overall, the bioactive secretions of this family of anurans may have antimicrobial, protease inhibitor and anticancer properties, as well as being active at the neuromuscular level. Expand
Dietary source for skin alkaloids of poison frogs (Dendrobatidae)?
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The results indicate a dietary origin for at least some “dendrobatid alkaloids,” in particular the pyrrolizidine oximes, the tricyclic coccinellines, and perhaps the histrionicotoxins and gephyrotoxins. Expand
First characterization of toxic alkaloids and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the cryptic dendrobatid Silverstoneia punctiventris
TLDR
This study establishes HS-SPME/GC-MS as a new application for a simultaneous approach to amphibian alkaloids and VOCs in poison frogs while opens up new research questions to assess the co-occurrence of both type of compounds and to investigate the evolutionary significance of a defence gradient that includes olfactory avoidance, unpalatability, and toxicity in dendrobatids. Expand
Formicine ants: An arthropod source for the pumiliotoxin alkaloids of dendrobatid poison frogs.
TLDR
The presence of pumiliotoxins in formicine ants of the genera Brachymyrmex and Paratrechina, as well as the presence of these ants in the stomach contents of the microsympatric pumiliaotoxin-containing dendrobatid frog, Dendrobates pumilio, support the significance of ant-specialization and alkaloid sequestration in the evolution of bright warning coloration in poison frogs and toads. Expand
The evolution of myrmecophagy and its correlates in poison frogs (Family Dendrobatidae)
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Diet, and the subsequent evolution of uptake systems for alkaloids, may be the primary character that led to the development of toxic skin and permitted aposematism, leading to radiation of poisonous species. Expand
FOUR BRILLIANTLY COLORED AFRICAN REED FROG SPECIES (HYPEROLIIDAE: HYPEROLIUS)
—The sequestration of alkaloids from prey items for the purpose of chemical defense has evolved independently in five frog families, and is documented for approximately 150 taxa. The number ofExpand
Variability in alkaloid profiles in neotropical poison frogs (Dendrobatidae): genetic versus environmental determinants.
TLDR
The genetic, environmental and dietary determinants of alkaloid profiles in dendrobatid frogs remain obscure, in particular the underlying cause for total absence in terrarium-reared frogs. Expand
Oribatid mites as a major dietary source for alkaloids in poison frogs
TLDR
The results of this study indicate that mites are a significant arthropod repository of a variety of alkaloids and represent a major dietary source of alkAloids in poison frogs. Expand
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Classification of skin alkaloids from neotropical poison-dart frogs (Dendrobatidae).
TLDR
A wide range of biological activity of the dendrobatid alkaloids is indicated by injection of unresolved alkaloid fractions into white mice: extracts from different species of Dendrobates produce reactions as diverse as Straub tail, penile erection, prostration, convulsions and salivation. Expand
Occurrence of skin alkaloids in non-dendrobatid frogs from Brazil (Bufonidae), Australia (Myobatrachidae) and Madagascar (Mantellinae).
TLDR
Several taxa of small frogs from the southern hemisphere contain alkaloid similar or identical to compounds previously known only from neotropical poison frogs of the family Dendrobatidae, which have not been detected in a phylogenetically wide array of other anuran amphibians, and the dendrobatid alkaloids become an evolutionary enigma. Expand
Indole-, imidazole- and phenyl-alkylamines in the skin of one hundred and forty American amphibian species other than bufonids.
Extracts prepared from dried or fresh skins of 140 American amphibian species, other than bufonids, were subjected to chemical and biological screening in order to determine the presence andExpand
Alkaloids of neotropical poison frogs (Dendrobatidae).
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  • Fortschritte der Chemie organischer Naturstoffe = Progress in the chemistry of organic natural products. Progres dans la chimie des substances organiques naturelles
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TLDR
Only three species of neotropical frogs can be stated with assurance to have been used to poison blow darts (191). Expand
Biologically Active Alkaloids from Poison Frogs (Dendrobatidae)
TLDR
Five major classes have been defined: the highly toxic batrachotoxins are steroidal alkaloids which prevent interactivation of sodium channels in nerve and muscle, and pumiliotoxin-C class alkaloid are decahydroquinolines which block nicotinic receptor mediated neuromuscular transmission. Expand
Taxonomic and Evolutionary Significance of Biogenic Amines and Polypeptides in Amphibian Skin. II. Toads of the Genera Bufo and Melanophryniscus
TLDR
Analysis of biochemical data was carried out having in mind the classical osteological data by Tihen (1962) and other recent reports on evolution and taxonomy of amphibians, among which is the report by Blair (1963) on the origin and evolutionary deployment of the actual species of toads. Expand
Toxicity of Panamanian Poison Frogs (Dendrobates): Some Biological and Chemical Aspects
TLDR
A small Neotropical frog, Dendrobates pumilio, undergoes interpopulational variation in color, degree of toxicity, size, and habits, which may result from isolation and chance restriction of original heterozygosity, with subsequent selection acting on different and greatly limited mixtures of alleles. Expand
Active peptides in the skins of two hundred and thirty American amphibian species.
TLDR
The hylid frogs of the Phyllomedusinae family occupy a unique position, as their skin displayed the greatest variety and abundance of active peptides ever found in any amphibian, destined to increase because numerous other peptide molecules await isolation, elucidation of structure and definition of possible biological activities. Expand
Indole-, imidazole- and phenyl-alkylamines in the skin of one hundred amphibian species from Australia and Papua New Guinea.
Abstract 1. Extracts prepared from the dried skins of approximately one hundred amphibian species from Australia and Papua Guinea were subjected to chemical and biological screening in order toExpand
The occurrence of tetrodotoxin (tarichatoxin) in amphibia and the distribution of the toxin in the organs of newts (taricha).
TLDR
Tetrodotoxin is concentrated in the skin, ovaries and ova, muscle and blood and is present in trace amounts in the liver, viscera and testes in adult Taricha torosa. Expand
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