Astroglial cells in primary cultures bind [3H]flunitrazepam with a high affinity on a single type of site and on a number of binding sites which increased during astroglial growth and differentiation. These binding sites show a particular pharmacological spectrum characterized by an inhibition of high affinity by RO-5-4864 (4′-chlorodiazepam), an anticonvulsant of the benzodiazepine family and by an inhibition of binding of lower affinities by diazepam clonazepam and clobazam. RO-5-4864 and clonazepam compete for the same binding site in astroglia. The heat stability and the hormonal modulation by thyroxine are similar for astroglia and neuronal-cells. Benxodiazepines modulate the astroglial 5-HT receptor. Such an effect could be a possible physiological response to benzodiazepines for astroglial cells in primary cultures.