Further Results of the Pioneer Venus Nephelometer Experiment

  title={Further Results of the Pioneer Venus Nephelometer Experiment},
  author={Jacques Blamont and Boris Ragent},
  pages={67 - 70}
Backscattering data for the nephelometer experiments conducted aboard the Pioneer Venus mission probes, including data up to the highest altitudes measured by the probes, are presented. A few small signals were detected below the main cloud deck. Ambient radiation was measured at near-ultraviolet and visible wavelengths; the variation of extinction of near-ultraviolet with altitude is inferred. Ambient radiance decreased more rapidly at 530 than at 745 nanometers in the lower atmosphere. 
19 Citations
Pioneer Venus Sounder And Small Probes Nephelometer Instrument
The Nephelometer instrument flown on all four of the probes of the Pioneer Venus mission is described. The instruments functioned well, returning data on the backscattering properties of the Venusian
Preliminary Results of the Pioneer Venus Small Probe Net Flux Radiometer Experiment
Net radiation measurements in the atmosphere of Venus indicate that the bulk of the atmosphere is radiatively cooling at high latitudes and heating at low latitudes, indicating planetwide stratification.
The microphysics of the clouds of Venus: Results of the Pioneer Venus Particle Size Spectrometer Experiment
The results of the particle size spectrometer experiment on the Pioneer Venus sounder probe are presented. The vertical cloud structure is found to consist of three primary cloud regions of
Venus Winds Are Zonal and Retrograde Below the Clouds
Winds in the lower atmosphere of Venus, inferred from three-dimensional radio interferometric tracking of the descents of the Pioneer day and north probes, are predominantly easterly with speeds of
The Structure of the Clouds of Venus: Results of the Pioneer Venus
The results of the nephelometer experiments conducted aboard the four probes of the Pioneer Venus mission are presented. The vertical structure of the clouds exhibits an upper haze region leading to
Net radiation in the atmosphere of Venus: Measurements and interpretation
Net flux radiometer measurements in the atmosphere of Venus question the effectiveness of the greenhouse mechanism in maintaining the high surface temperature. To search for possible instrumental
Greenhouse models of Venus' High surface temperature, as constrained by Pioneer Venus measurements
Recent measurements conducted from the Pioneer Venus probes and orbiter have provided a significantly improved definition of the solar net flux profile, the gaseous composition, temperature
Venus Atmospheric Thermal Structure and Radiative Balance
From the discovery that Venus has an atmosphere during the 1761 transit by M. Lomonosov to the current exploration of the planet by the Akatsuki orbiter, we continue to learn about the planet’s


Nature of the Ultraviolet Absorber in the Venus Clouds: Inferences Based on Pioneer Venus Data
Several photometric measurements of Venus made from the Pioneer Venus orbiter and probes indicate that solar near-ultraviolet radiation is being absorbed throughout much of the main cloud region, but
Thermal Contrast in the Atmosphere of Venus: Initial Appraisal from Pioneer Venus Probe Data
The altitude profiles of temperature and pressure measured during the descent of the four Pioneer Venus probes show small contrast below the clouds but significant differences within the clouds at altitudes from 45 to 61 kilometers, consistent with cyclostrophic balance of zonal winds.
The Pioneer Venus Program
The Pioneer Venus program encompasses two spacecraft missions, Orbiter and Multiprobe, to be launched and to encounter Venus during the 1978 Venus mission opportunity. The missions are described in
Clouds of Venus: Particle Size Distribution Measurements
The discovery of large particles > 30 micrometers, significant particle mass loading, and size spectral features suggest that precipitation is likely produced; a peculiar aerosol structure beneath the lowest cloud layer could be residue from a recent shower.
Clouds of Venus: A Preliminary Assessment of Microstructure
Sedimentation and decomposition of H2SO4 in the droplets of the lower cloud region contribute more than 7 watts per square meter of heat flux equaling one-fourth of the solar net flux at 50 kilometers.
Preliminary Results of the Pioneer Venus Nephelometer Experiment
Tentative results from attempting to use the data from the nephelometer and cloud particle size spectrometer on the sounder probe to identify the indices of refraction of cloud particles in various regions of the Venus clouds are reported.
Altitude profil6s used in this report were obtained from A. Seiff [see
    Informatics, Inc., for support in data processing and instrument calibration
    • The analysis involves removing SCIENCE,
    • 1979