Fungal secondary metabolism — from biochemistry to genomics

  title={Fungal secondary metabolism — from biochemistry to genomics},
  author={Nancy P. Keller and Geoffrey Turner and Joan W Bennett},
  journal={Nature Reviews Microbiology},
Much of natural product chemistry concerns a group of compounds known as secondary metabolites. These low-molecular-weight metabolites often have potent physiological activities. Digitalis, morphine and quinine are plant secondary metabolites, whereas penicillin, cephalosporin, ergotrate and the statins are equally well known fungal secondary metabolites. Although chemically diverse, all secondary metabolites are produced by a few common biosynthetic pathways, often in conjunction with… 

10 Evolution of Genes for Secondary Metabolism in Fungi

An overview of secondary metabolite genes in different fungal groups is given, some of the principles of the regulation of expression of these genes are addressed, and what is known about the biological functions of secondary metabolites in fungi is summarized.

Secondary Metabolites of Fungal Vine Pathogens

Investigation into natural product research concerning the biosynthetic potential of producing organisms are often hampered by the fact that production of these metabolites is sensitive to culture conditions, therefore, the metabolites produced in axenic culture do not match the spectrum of natural products produced within the environment.

Biological activity of fungal secondary metabolites

Fungi, filamentous forms, produce a diverse array of secondary metabolites that are small molecules, and not necessary for normal growth or development, which are still more or less a mystery.

Analysis of Secondary Metabolites from Plant Endophytic Fungi.

This chapter describes the procedures for fungal fermentation, metabolite extraction, and analysis using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of the endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis fici, which produces 88 secondary metabolites including 70 new natural products.

Fungal secondary metabolites - strategies to activate silent gene clusters.

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Chemical repertoire and biosynthetic machinery of the Aspergillus flavus secondary metabolome: A review.

This review will discuss the chemical diversity, biosynthetic pathways, and biological/ecological role of A. flavus SMs, as well as their significance concerning food safety and security.



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The amazing range of chemical structures observed for fungal metabolites is derived from a relatively small number of basic metabolic pathways, plus combinations of these, which have become extremely diversified during the course of evolution.

Secondary metabolites: their function and evolution.

Partial table of contents: Origins of Secondary Metabolism (T. Cavalier-Smith) Genes for Polyketide Secondary Metabolic Pathways in Microorganisms and Plants (D. Hopwood & C. Khosla) Regulation of

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A novel Aspergillus nuclear protein, LaeA, is presented here as a global regulator of secondary metabolism in this genus, and strains show little difference in spore production compared to the wild type, indicating that the primary role of laeA is to regulate metabolic gene clusters.

Relationship between Secondary Metabolism and Fungal Development

In the case of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, the only described work that genetically links the sporulation of this fungus to the production of the mycotoxin sterigmatocystin through a shared G-protein signaling pathway is reviewed.

Genetics and Biosynthesis of Aflatoxins and Sterigmatocystin

Two chemically related fungal secondary metabolites that have been studied extensively are the mycotoxins sterigmatocystin (ST) and aflatoxin (AF), produced by several Aspergillus species.

Molecular Regulation of β-Lactam Biosynthesis in Filamentous Fungi

  • A. Brakhage
  • Biology
    Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews
  • 1998
A comparison with the regulatory mechanisms (regulatory proteins and DNA elements) involved in the regulation of genes of primary metabolism in lower eukaryotes is thus of great interest and can be expected to have a major impact on rational strain improvement programs.

Secondary Metabolism in Microorganisms, Plants and Animals

This book shows that the formation of sec ondary products is a common characteristic of specialized cells brought about by the action of special enzymes encoded by specific genetic material.

Ergot Alkaloids: Chemistry, Biological Effects, Biotechnology

This work focuses on the role of alkaloids in the life system of Claviceps and their role in biocatalysis, which is involved in the biosynthesis and storage of alkaloids.

Genetics and physiology of aflatoxin biosynthesis.

This chapter discusses current knowledge on the molecular biology and genetics of the pathway, and provides a summary of the physiological factors known to influence aflatoxin formation.