Fungal mutualisms and pathosystems: life and death in the ambrosia beetle mycangia.

  title={Fungal mutualisms and pathosystems: life and death in the ambrosia beetle mycangia.},
  author={Ross Joseph and Nemat O. Keyhani},
  journal={Applied microbiology and biotechnology},
Ambrosia beetles and their microbial communities, housed in specialized structures termed mycangia, represent one of the oldest and most diverse systems of mutualism and parasitism described thus far. Comprised of core filamentous fungal members, but also including bacteria and yeasts, the mycangia represent a unique adaptation that allows beetles to store and transport their source of nutrition. Although perhaps the most ancient of "farmers," the nature of these interactions remains largely… 
Novel Symbiotic Association Between Euwallacea Ambrosia Beetle and Fusarium Fungus on Fig Trees in Japan
The symbiotic fungi of female adults of E. interjectus were determined and a specific fungus, Fusarium kuroshium, was dominant in female head (including oral mycangia) and the plant-pathogenic fungus of FWD, Ceratocystis ficicola, was not observed within any body parts of E.
Unique Attributes of the Laurel Wilt Fungal Pathogen, Raffaelea lauricola, as Revealed by Metabolic Profiling
Different patterns of substrate usage and sensitivity are identified which likely reflect important aspects of the host-microbe interface and can be exploited for the development of strategies for mitigating the spread of laurel wilt.
Lessons From Insect Fungiculture: From Microbial Ecology to Plastics Degradation
It is proposed to look for inspiration in the charismatic fungal-growing insects to understand multipartite degradation of plant polymers and suggest multidisciplinary strategies to identify microbial degraders, degrading enzymes and pathways, as well as microbial interactions and interdependencies.
Two Cladosporium Fungi with Opposite Functions to the Chinese White Wax Scale Insect Have Different Genome Characters
Insects encounter infection of microorganisms, and they also harbor endosymbiosis to participate in nutrition providing and act as a defender against pathogens. We previously found the Chinese white
Invertebrate Assemblages on Biscogniauxia Sporocarps on Oak Dead Wood: An Observation Aided by Squirrels
Dead wood is an important habitat for both fungi and insects, two enormously diverse groups that contribute to forest biodiversity. Unlike the myriad of studies on fungus–insect relationships, insect
Stability of Nuclear and Mitochondrial Reference Genes in Selected Tissues of the Ambrosia Beetle Xylosandrus germanus
This study sought to identify reference genes necessary for future transcriptome analyses aimed at characterizing gene expression within the mycangium of the fungus-farming ambrosia beetle Xylosandrus germanus.


The Ambrosia Symbiosis: From Evolutionary Ecology to Practical Management.
The ambrosia beetle-fungus farming symbiosis is more heterogeneous than previously thought and there are also three types of pest damage: tree pathogen inoculation, mass accumulation on susceptible hosts, and structural damage.
  • J. Hulcr, A. Cognato
  • Biology, Environmental Science
    Evolution; international journal of organic evolution
  • 2010
Fungus stealing appears to be an evolutionarily successful strategy among ambrosia beetles and is reported independently in several beetle clades, two of which have radiated and at least one case was accompanied by a loss of the beetles’ fungus‐transporting organs.
Acquisition of fungi from the environment modifies ambrosia beetle mycobiome during invasion
The results support the hypothesis that the direct contact with the mycobiome of the invaded environment might lead an exotic species to acquire native fungi, and contribute to the understanding of the factors affecting insect-microbes interactions.
Identification of the Achilles heels of the laurel wilt pathogen and its beetle vector
Use of avocado bark plug insect bioassays revealed that commercially available Beauveria bassiana can be used as a biological control agent capable of effectively killing the beetle vectors, and provides simple and practical recommendations to specifically target R. lauricola.
Symbiont selection via alcohol benefits fungus farming by ambrosia beetles
It is proposed that ambrosia beetles use ethanol to optimize their food production and maintain the selectivity of their alcohol-rich habitat for their own purpose and that of other ethanol-resistant/producing microbes.
Know your farmer: Ancient origins and multiple independent domestications of ambrosia beetle fungal cultivars
Evidence is found for contemporaneous diversification of the beetles and their associated fungi, followed by three independent domestication events of the ambrosia fungi genus Raffaelea, which is estimated to be the first domestication of an Ophiostomatales fungus.
Plasticity of mycangia in Xylosandrus ambrosia beetles
Mycangia are more dynamic than previously thought, and their morphological changes correspond to the phases of the symbiosis, which means studies of the fungal symbionts or plant pathogen transmission in ambrosia beetles need to consider which developmental stage to sample.
Abundance and dynamics of filamentous fungi in the complex ambrosia gardens of the primitively eusocial beetle Xyleborinus saxesenii Ratzeburg (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae).
The data suggest that two mutualistic, several commensalistic and one to two pathogenic filamentous fungi are associated with X. saxesenii, which cultivates fungi in tunnels excavated within dead trees.
Lipids and small metabolites provisioned by ambrosia fungi to symbiotic beetles are phylogeny-dependent, not convergent
Ambrosia provisions consist either of nonspecific nutrients in elevated amounts, or of metabolites that are specific to each of the ambrosia symbioses, which is mostly driven by its inherited metabolism rather than the transition toward symbiosis.