Fundamental limitations for quantum and nanoscale thermodynamics.

@article{Horodecki2013FundamentalLF,
  title={Fundamental limitations for quantum and nanoscale thermodynamics.},
  author={Michal Horodecki and Jonathan Oppenheim},
  journal={Nature communications},
  year={2013},
  volume={4},
  pages={
          2059
        }
}
The relationship between thermodynamics and statistical physics is valid in the thermodynamic limit-when the number of particles becomes very large. Here we study thermodynamics in the opposite regime-at both the nanoscale and when quantum effects become important. Applying results from quantum information theory, we construct a theory of thermodynamics in these limits. We derive general criteria for thermodynamical state transitions, and, as special cases, find two free energies: one that… 
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