Fundamental limitations for quantum and nanoscale thermodynamics.

  title={Fundamental limitations for quantum and nanoscale thermodynamics.},
  author={Michal Horodecki and Jonathan Oppenheim},
  journal={Nature communications},
The relationship between thermodynamics and statistical physics is valid in the thermodynamic limit-when the number of particles becomes very large. Here we study thermodynamics in the opposite regime-at both the nanoscale and when quantum effects become important. Applying results from quantum information theory, we construct a theory of thermodynamics in these limits. We derive general criteria for thermodynamical state transitions, and, as special cases, find two free energies: one that… 
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