Functions of the Nonverbal in CMC: Emoticons and Illocutionary Force

  title={Functions of the Nonverbal in CMC: Emoticons and Illocutionary Force},
  author={Eli Dresner and Susan C. Herring},
  journal={Communication Theory},
The term 'emoticons'—short for 'emotion icons'—refers to graphic signs, such as the smiley face, that often accompany computer-mediated textual communication. They are most often characterized as iconic indicators of emotion, conveyed through a communication channel that is parallel to the linguistic one. In this article, it is argued that this conception of emoticons fails to account for some of their important uses. We present a brief outline of speech act theory and use it to provide a… 

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Emotional Expression Online: Gender Differences in Emoticon Use

  • Alecia Wolf
  • Sociology
    Cyberpsychology Behav. Soc. Netw.
  • 2000
The changes that take place in emoticon use when moving from same-gender to mixed-gender newsgroups indicate that rather than the emotional expression of females being silenced or muted by male encoding of emoticons, males adopt the female standard of expressing more emotion.

Text-Centered versus Multimodal Analysis of Instant Messaging Conversation

An analysis of nonverbal communication, facial expression, and the relationship between text and kinesic behaviors in video recordings of four instant messaging discussions reveals that some kinesi behaviors can be seen as markers of engagement in interaction, even though an instant messaging discussion is not really interactive.


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